{{other uses}} {{Redirect2|Barack|Obama|other uses|Barack (disambiguation)|and|Obama (disambiguation)}} {{Pp-move-indef}} {{Pp-semi|small=yes}} {{short description|44th president of the United States}} {{Active editnotice}} {{Use American English|date=August 2018}} {{Use mdy dates|date=March 2019}} {{Infobox president |image         = President Barack Obama.jpg |alt           = Obama standing with his arms folded and smiling |office        = 44th [[President of the United States]] |caption = |vicepresident = [[Joe Biden]] |term_start    = January 20, 2009 |term_end      = January 20, 2017 |predecessor   = [[George W. Bush]] |successor     = [[Donald Trump]] |jr/sr1        = United States Senator |state1        = [[Illinois]] |term_start1   = January 3, 2005 |term_end1     = November 16, 2008 |predecessor1  = [[Peter Fitzgerald (politician)|Peter Fitzgerald]] |successor1    = [[Roland Burris]] |state_senate2 = Illinois |district2     = 13th |predecessor2  = [[Alice Palmer (politician)|Alice Palmer]] |term_start2   = January 8, 1997 |term_end2     = November 4, 2004 |successor2    = [[Kwame Raoul]] |birth_name    = Barack Hussein Obama II |birth_date    = {{birth date and age|1961|8|4}} |birth_place   = [[Honolulu]], [[Hawaii]], U.S. |death_date    = |death_place   = |party         = [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] |spouse        = {{marriage|[[Michelle Robinson]]|October 3, 1992}} |children      = {{hlist|[[Malia Obama|Malia]]|[[Sasha Obama|Sasha]]}} |parents       = [[Barack Obama Sr.]]<br />[[Ann Dunham]] |residence     = [[Kalorama (Washington, D.C.)]] |relatives     = [[Obama family]] |education     = [[Occidental College]]<br />[[Columbia University]] ([[Bachelor of Arts|BA]])<br />[[Harvard University]] ([[Juris Doctor|JD]]) |website       = {{url||Official website}}<br />{{url||Obama Foundation}}<br />{{url||White House Archives}} |awards        = [[Nobel Peace Prize]] ([[2009 Nobel Peace Prize|2009]])<br />[[Profile in Courage Award]] (2017) |signature     = Barack Obama signature.svg }} {{Barack Obama sidebar}} {{New Democrats |expanded=People}} <!-- PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE OBAMA'S NAME. -->'''Barack Hussein Obama II''' ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Barack-Hussein-Obama.ogg|b|ə|ˈ|r|ɑː|k|_|h|uː|ˈ|s|eɪ|n|_|oʊ|ˈ|b|ɑː|m|ə}};<ref>{{YouTube|clMEg4-N7ao|"Barack Hussein Obama Takes The Oath Of Office"}}. January 20, 2009.</ref> born August 4, 1961) is an American [[Lawyer|attorney]] and [[politician]] who served as the 44th [[president of the United States]] from 2009 to 2017. A member of the [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic Party]], he was the first [[African American]] to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a [[U.S. senator]] from [[Illinois]] from 2005 to 2008.<!-- PLEASE DO NOT CHANGE FROM "AFRICAN AMERICAN", per consensus. See discussions and FAQ (Q2) on the talk page. -->

Obama was born in [[Honolulu]], [[Hawaii]]. After graduating from [[Columbia University]] in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in [[Chicago]]. In 1988, he enrolled in [[Harvard Law School]], where he was the first black president of the ''[[Harvard Law Review]]''. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the [[University of Chicago Law School]] from 1992 to 2004. He [[Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama|represented the 13th district for three terms]] in the [[Illinois Senate]] from 1997 until 2004 when he [[United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004|ran for the U.S. Senate]]. He received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July [[2004 Democratic National Convention|Democratic National Convention]] [[2004 Democratic National Convention keynote address|keynote address]], and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after [[Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008|his campaign]] began and after [[Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008|a close primary campaign]] against [[Hillary Clinton]]. He was [[2008 United States presidential election|elected]] over [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] [[John McCain]] and was [[First inauguration of Barack Obama|inaugurated]] on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the [[2009 Nobel Peace Prize]] laureate.

Regarded as a [[Centrism|centrist]] [[New Democrats|New Democrat]], Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office. The main reforms that were passed include the [[Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act]] (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act"), the [[Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act]], and the [[Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010]]. The [[American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009]] and [[Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010]] served as economic stimulus amidst the [[Great Recession]]. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the [[Budget Control Act of 2011|Budget Control]] and the [[American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012|American Taxpayer Relief Acts]]. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|Afghanistan]], reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia [[New START]] treaty, and [[Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq|ended military involvement]] in the [[Iraq War]]. He ordered [[2011 military intervention in Libya|military involvement in Libya]] in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was [[Death of Muammar Gaddafi|killed by NATO-assisted forces]]. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in [[death of Osama bin Laden|the deaths of Osama bin Laden]] and suspected Yemeni [[Al-Qaeda]] operative [[Anwar al-Awlaki]].

After winning [[2012 United States presidential election|re-election]] by defeating Republican opponent [[Mitt Romney]], Obama was [[Second inauguration of Barack Obama|sworn in for a second term]] in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for [[LGBT American]]s. His administration filed briefs that urged the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] to strike down [[Same-sex marriage in the United States|same-sex marriage]] bans as unconstitutional (''[[United States v. Windsor]]'' and ''[[Obergefell v. Hodges]]''); same-sex marriage was fully [[Same-sex marriage in the United States|legalized]] in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in ''[[Obergefell v. Hodges|Obergefell]]''. He advocated for [[Gun politics in the United States|gun control]] in response to the [[Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting]], indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning [[climate change]] and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered [[American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)|military intervention in Iraq]] in response to gains made by [[ISIL]] after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of [[Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan|ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan]] in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 [[Paris Agreement]] on global climate change, initiated [[International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis|sanctions against Russia]] following the [[Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)|invasion in Ukraine]] and again after [[Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections]], brokered a [[Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action|nuclear deal with Iran]], and [[United States–Cuban Thaw|normalized U.S. relations with Cuba]]. Obama nominated [[Barack Obama Supreme Court candidates|three justices to the Supreme Court]]: [[Sonia Sotomayor]] and [[Elena Kagan]] were confirmed as justices, while [[Merrick Garland]] faced unprecedented partisan [[Merrick Garland Supreme Court nomination|obstruction]] and was ultimately not confirmed. During his term in office, America's [[soft power]] and reputation abroad significantly improved.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Most of the world doesn't actually see America the way Trump said it did|author1=Wan, William|author2=Scott Clement|website=[[The Washington Post]]|date=November 18, 2016}}</ref>

Obama's presidency has generally been regarded favorably, and evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, and the general public place him among [[Historical rankings of presidents of the United States#Notable scholar surveys|the upper tier]] of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and currently resides in [[Washington, D.C.]]<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Obama's First Retrospective Job Approval Rating Is 63%|last=Jones|first=Jeffrey M.||date=February 15, 2018|access-date=April 5, 2018|language=en-us}}</ref><ref name="How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best — and Worst — Presidents?" /> A December 2018 [[Gallup's most admired man and woman poll|Gallup poll]] found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]] was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Barack and Michelle Obama top Gallup's list of most-admired men and women in the world, trouncing the Trumps|first=Jacob Shamsian|last=INSIDER|website=Business Insider|accessdate=January 2, 2019}}</ref>

{{TOC limit|4}}

Early life and career Edit

{{Main|Early life and career of Barack Obama}} Obama was born on August 4, 1961,<ref name="biography">{{cite web |year = 2008 |title = President Barack Obama |publisher = The White House |url = |accessdate = December 12, 2008 |deadurl=yes | archiveurl= |archivedate=October 26, 2009 }}</ref> at [[Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children]] in [[Honolulu]], Hawaii.<ref name="birth-certificate" /><ref name="maraniss">{{cite news |author = Maraniss, David |date = August 24, 2008 |title = Though Obama had to leave to find himself, it is Hawaii that made his rise possible |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A22 |url = |accessdate = October 28, 2008 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |author = Nakaso, Dan |date = December 22, 2008 |title = Twin sisters, Obama on parallel paths for years |newspaper = [[The Honolulu Advertiser]] |page = B1 |url = |accessdate = January 22, 2011 }}</ref> He is the only president who was born outside of the [[contiguous United States|contiguous 48 states]].<ref name="BarretoO'Bryant2013">{{cite book|last1=Barreto|first1=Amílcar Antonio|author2=Richard L. O'Bryant|title=American Identity in the Age of Obama|chapter-url=|accessdate=May 8, 2017|date=November 12, 2013|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-317-93715-9|pages=18–19|chapter=Introduction}}</ref> He was born to a white mother and a black father. His mother, [[Ann Dunham]] (1942–1995), was born in [[Wichita, Kansas]]; she was mostly of English descent,<ref>Obama (1995, 2004), p. 12.</ref> with some German, Irish, Scottish, Swiss, and Welsh ancestry.<ref>{{cite journal|author=Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak |date=November–December 2008 |title=The quest for Obama's Irish roots |journal=Ancestry |volume=26 |issue=6 |pages=46–47, 49 |issn=1075-475X |url= |accessdate=December 20, 2011 }}

  • {{cite news|author=Smolenyak, Megan |date=May 9, 2011 |title=Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall |url= |work=[[HuffPost]] |accessdate=May 19, 2011 }}
  • {{cite news|author=Rising, David |author2=Noelting, Christoph |agency=Associated Press |date=June 4, 2009 |title=Researchers: Obama has German roots |work=USA Today |url= |accessdate=May 13, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|last=Hutton |first=Brian |agency=Press Association of Ireland |last2=Nickerson |first2=Matthew |date=May 3, 2007 |title=For sure, Obama's South Side Irish; One of his roots traces back to small village |newspaper=Chicago Sun-Times |page=3 |format=paid archive |url='s%20South%20Side%20Irish)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(For%20sure)%20(%20Obama's%20South%20Side%20Irish)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate=November 24, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news|author=Jordon, Mary |date=May 13, 2007 |title=Tiny Irish village is latest place to claim Obama as its own |newspaper=The Washington Post |page=A14 |url= |accessdate=May 13, 2007 }}
  • {{cite news|author=David Williamson |date=July 5, 2008 |url= |title=Wales link in US presidential candidate's past | |accessdate=April 30, 2011 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 21, 2011 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> His father, [[Barack Obama Sr.]] (1936–1982), was a [[Luo people of Kenya and Tanzania|Luo Kenyan]] from [[Nyang'oma Kogelo]]. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a [[Russian language]] class at the [[University of Hawaii at Manoa]], where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship.<ref name="Jones 2007">{{cite news |author = Jones, Tim |date = March 27, 2007 |title = Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas; Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator |newspaper = [[Chicago Tribune]] |page = 1 (Tempo) |url = |deadurl = yes |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 7, 2017 |df = mdy-all }}</ref><ref name="Obama 1995, 2004, pp. 9–10">Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10.

* Scott (2011), pp. 80–86. * Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118.

  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 154–160.</ref> The couple married in [[Wailuku, Hawaii]], on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.<ref name="Ripley 2008">{{cite news |author = Ripley, Amanda |date = April 9, 2008 |title = The story of Barack Obama's mother |work = [[Time (magazine)|Time]] |url =,9171,1729685,00.html |accessdate = April 9, 2007 }}</ref><ref>Scott (2011), p. 86.

* Jacobs (2011), pp. 125–127. * Maraniss (2012), pp. 160–163.</ref>

In late August 1961 (a few weeks after he was born), Barack and his mother moved to the [[University of Washington]] in [[Seattle]], where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in [[economics]] in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962. He then left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at [[Harvard University]], where he earned an [[Master of Arts|M.A.]] in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964.<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 87–93. * Jacobs (2011), pp. 115–118, 125–127, 133–161. * Maraniss (2012), pp. 170–183, 188–189.</ref> Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance.<ref>Obama "Dreams from My Father a Story of Race and Inheritance"</ref> He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971,<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 142–144. * Jacobs (2011), pp. 161–177, 227–230.

  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 190–194, 201–209, 227–230.</ref> before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old.<ref>{{cite news |author = Ochieng, Philip |date = November 1, 2004 |title = From home squared to the US Senate: how Barack Obama was lost and found |newspaper = [[The EastAfrican]] |location = Nairobi |url = |archivedate = September 27, 2007 |archiveurl = }}
  • {{cite news |author = Merida, Kevin |date = December 14, 2007 |title = The ghost of a father |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A12 |url = |accessdate = June 25, 2008 }}

* Jacobs (2011), pp. 251–255.

  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 411–417.</ref> Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – barely registered in my mind."<ref name="Obama 1995, 2004, pp. 9–10" /> He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.<ref>{{cite news |author = Serrano, Richard A. |date = March 11, 2007 |title = Obama's peers didn't see his angst |newspaper = Los Angeles Times |page = A20 |url =,0,199085,full.story |accessdate = March 13, 2007 |deadurl = yes |archiveurl =,0,199085,full.story |archivedate = November 8, 2008 |df = mdy-all }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 4 and 5.</ref>

In 1963, Dunham met [[Lolo Soetoro]] at the [[University of Hawaii]]; he was an [[Native Indonesian|Indonesian]] [[East–West Center]] [[graduate student]] in [[geography]]. The couple married on [[Molokai]] on March 15, 1965.<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 97–103. * Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 225–230.</ref> After two one-year extensions of his [[J-1 visa]], Lolo returned to [[Indonesia]] in 1966. His wife and stepson followed sixteen months later in 1967. The family initially lived in the Menteng Dalam neighborhood in the [[Tebet, South Jakarta|Tebet]] sub district of [[south Jakarta]]. From 1970, they lived in a wealthier neighborhood in the [[Menteng]] sub district of [[central Jakarta]].<ref>Maraniss (2012), pp. 195–201, 209–223, 230–244.</ref>

Education Edit

Obama started out in St. Francis Pre-Education from age three to five. From age six to ten, he then attended local [[Indonesian Language|Indonesian-language]] schools: ''Sekolah Dasar Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi'' (St. Francis of Assisi Catholic Elementary School) for two years and ''[[State Elementary School Menteng 01|Sekolah Dasar Negeri Menteng 01]]'' (State Elementary School Menteng 01/Besuki school) for one and a half years, supplemented by English-language [[Calvert School]] homeschooling by his mother.<ref>Maraniss (2012), pp. 216, 221, 230, 234–244.</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Barack Obama: Calvert Homeschooler? – Calvert Education Blog |publisher = |accessdate = November 25, 2015 |date = January 25, 2014 }}</ref> As a result of those four years in [[Jakarta]], he was able to speak [[Indonesian language|Indonesian]] fluently as a child.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Wawancara Eksklusif RCTI dengan Barack Obama (Part 2) |date = March 2010 |website = YouTube |accessdate = February 12, 2018}}</ref><ref name="in Jakarta" /><ref name="in Jakarta2">{{cite web |title = Obama's Indonesian pleasantries: the video |url = |author = Zimmer, Benjamin |date = January 23, 2009 |accessdate = October 7, 2012 |website = Language Log |publisher = [[University of Pennsylvania]] }}</ref> During his time in Indonesia, Obama's step-father taught him to be resilient and gave him "a pretty hardheaded assessment of how the world works".<ref>{{Cite news |url= |title=What Barack Obama Learned from His Father |last=Meacham |first=Jon |date=August 22, 2008 |newspaper=Newsweek |archive-url= |archive-date=January 9, 2017 |dead-url=no |access-date=January 9, 2017 |df= }}</ref>

In 1971, Obama returned to [[Honolulu]] to live with his maternal grandparents, [[Madelyn Dunham|Madelyn]] and [[Stanley Armour Dunham|Stanley Dunham]]. He attended [[Punahou School]]—a private [[University-preparatory school|college preparatory school]]—with the aid of a scholarship from fifth grade until he graduated from high school in 1979.<ref>{{cite news |author = Serafin, Peter |date = March 21, 2004 |title = Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics |newspaper = [[Honolulu Star-Bulletin]] |url = |accessdate = March 20, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Scott, Janny |date = March 14, 2008 |title = A free-spirited wanderer who set Obama's path |work = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = November 18, 2011 }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4. * Scott (2012), pp. 131–134.

  • Maraniss (2012), pp. 264–269.</ref> In his youth, Obama went by the nickname "Barry".<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = When Barry Became Barack |last = Wolffe |first = Richard |date = March 22, 2008 |accessdate = March 21, 2016 |website = [[Newsweek]] }}</ref> Obama lived with his mother and half-sister, [[Maya Soetoro-Ng|Maya Soetoro]], in Hawaii for three years from 1972 to 1975 while his mother was a graduate student in [[anthropology]] at the [[University of Hawaii]].<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 139–157.

* Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281.</ref> Obama chose to stay in Hawaii with his grandparents for high school at [[Punahou School|Punahou]] when his mother and half-sister returned to Indonesia in 1975 so his mother could begin anthropology field work.<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 157–194. * Maraniss (2012), pp. 279–281, 324–326.</ref> His mother spent most of the next two decades in Indonesia, divorcing Lolo in 1980 and earning a [[PhD]] degree in 1992, before dying in 1995 in Hawaii following unsuccessful treatment for [[ovarian cancer|ovarian]] and [[uterine cancer]].<ref>Scott (2011), pp. 214, 294, 317–346.</ref>

Obama later reflected on his years in Honolulu and wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered – to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect – became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."<ref>{{cite news |author = Reyes, B.J. |date = February 8, 2007 |title = Punahou left lasting impression on Obama |newspaper = Honolulu Star-Bulletin |url = |accessdate = February 10, 2007 |quote = As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks. }}</ref> Obama has also written and talked about using [[alcohol]], [[marijuana]], and [[cocaine]] during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind".<ref>{{cite news|author=Elliott, Philip |agency=Associated Press |date=November 21, 2007 |title=Obama gets blunt with N.H. students |newspaper=[[Boston Globe]] |page=8A |url= |accessdate=May 18, 2012 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 7, 2012 |df= }}</ref> Obama was also a member of the "choom gang", a self-named group of friends that spent time together and occasionally smoked marijuana.<ref>{{cite news |author = Karl, Jonathan |publisher = ABC News |date = May 25, 2012 |title = Obama and his pot-smoking "choom gang" |url = |accessdate = May 25, 2012 }}

  • {{cite book |first = Barack |last = Obama |year = 2004 |orig-year = 1995 |url = |title = Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance |pages = 93–94 |accessdate = June 3, 2016 |isbn = 9780307394125 }}
  • {{cite book |first = David |last = Maraniss |year = 2012 |url = |title = Barack Obama: The Story |at = pages with "choom gang" |accessdate = June 3, 2016 |isbn = 9781439167533 }}

* for analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see:

  • {{cite news |author = Seelye, Katharine Q. |date = October 24, 2006 |title = Obama offers more variations from the norm |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A21 |url = |accessdate = October 29, 2006 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Romano, Lois |date = January 3, 2007 |title = Effect of Obama's candor remains to be seen |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = January 14, 2007 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = FRONTLINE The Choice 2012 |publisher = PBS |date = October 9, 2012 |accessdate = October 29, 2012 }}</ref>

After graduating from high school in 1979, Obama moved to [[Los Angeles]] to attend [[Occidental College]]. In February 1981, Obama made his first public speech, calling for Occidental to participate in the [[disinvestment from South Africa]] in response to that nation's policy of [[apartheid]].<ref name="Occidental" /> In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and half-sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in [[Pakistan]] and [[India]] for three weeks.<ref name="Occidental" /> Later in 1981, he transferred as a junior to [[Columbia College, Columbia University|Columbia University]] in New York City, where he majored in [[political science]] with a specialty in [[international relations]]<ref>{{cite news |author = Boss-Bicak, Shira |date = January 2005 |title = Barack Obama '83 |magazine = Columbia College Today |issn = 0572-7820 |url = |accessdate = October 1, 2006 |archive-url = |archive-date = September 5, 2008 |dead-url = yes |df = mdy-all }}</ref> and in [[English literature]]<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Remarks by the President in Town Hall|date=June 26, 2014|publisher=White House|access-date=October 15, 2016}}</ref> and lived off-campus on West 109th Street.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = The Approval Matrix |date = August 27, 2012 |work = New York }}</ref> He graduated with a [[Bachelor of Arts|BA]] degree in 1983 and worked for about a year at the [[Business International Corporation]], where he was a financial researcher and writer,<ref>{{Cite web |url= |title=Obama's Early Brush With Financial Markets |last=Horsley |first=Scott |date=July 9, 2008 |publisher=[[NPR]] |language=en |access-date=July 17, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |author = Obama, Barack |year = 1998 |title = Curriculum vitae |publisher = The University of Chicago Law School |url = |archivedate = May 9, 2001 |archiveurl = |accessdate = October 1, 2006 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Issenberg, Sasha |date = August 6, 2008 |title = Obama shows hints of his year in global finance; Tied markets to social aid |newspaper = Boston Globe |page = 1A |url = |accessdate = August 6, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = November 7, 2009 |deadurl = yes |df = mdy-all }}</ref> then as a project coordinator for the [[New York Public Interest Research Group]] on the [[City College of New York]] campus for three months in 1985.<ref>{{cite news |author = Scott, Janny |date = July 30, 2007 |title = Obama's account of New York often differs from what others say |newspaper = The New York Times |page = B1 |url = |accessdate = July 31, 2007 }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140.

  • Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.</ref><ref name="Who's Who 2008">{{cite book |editor = Chassie, Karen |year = 2007 |title = Who's Who in America, 2008 |page = 3468 |place = New Providence, NJ |publisher = Marquis Who's Who |isbn = 978-0-8379-7011-0 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama stood out, even during brief 1985 NYPIRG job |date = November 9, 2008 |newspaper = Newsday |first = Jason |last = Fink }}</ref>

Family and personal life Edit

{{Main|Family of Barack Obama}} [[File:Obama family portrait in the Green Room.jpg|thumb|Obama posing in the [[Green Room (White House)|Green Room]] of the White House with wife Michelle and daughters Sasha and Malia, 2009]] In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of [[family of Barack Obama|his extended family]]: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like [[Bernie Mac]], and I've got relatives who look like [[Margaret Thatcher]]."<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First |date = October 18, 2006|website = The Oprah Winfrey Show |accessdate = June 24, 2008}}</ref> Obama has a half-sister with whom he was raised (Maya Soetoro-Ng) and seven other half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family—six of them living.<ref>{{cite news |first=Scott |last=Fornek |title=Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family' |date=September 9, 2007 |url=,BSX-News-wotrees09.stng |archiveurl=,BSX-News-wotrees09.stng |archivedate=January 18, 2010 |work=Chicago Sun-Times |accessdate=June 24, 2008 |deadurl=yes}} See also: {{cite news |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=July 3, 2008 |title=Interactive Family Tree |date=September 9, 2007 |work=Chicago Sun-Times |accessdate=June 24, 2008 }}</ref> Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, [[Madelyn Dunham]],<ref>{{cite news |first=Scott |last=Fornek |title=Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer' |date=September 9, 2007 |url=,BSX-News-wotreeee09.stng |archiveurl=,BSX-News-wotreeee09.article |archivedate=May 14, 2009 |work=Chicago Sun-Times |accessdate=June 24, 2008 |deadurl=no}}</ref> until her death on November 2, 2008,<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer |publisher = CNN |accessdate = November 4, 2008 |date = November 3, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = November 3, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> two days before his election to the Presidency. Obama also has roots in Ireland; he met with his Irish cousins in [[Moneygall]] in May 2011.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Tracing Barack Obama's Roots to Moneygall |date = May 9, 2011 |work = HuffPost |first = Megan |last = Smolenyak }}</ref> In ''Dreams from My Father'', Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of [[Jefferson Davis]], [[President of the Confederate States of America]] during the [[American Civil War]]. He also shares distant ancestors in common with [[George W. Bush]] and [[Dick Cheney]], among others.<ref>Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, [[Dick Cheney]], and [[Harry S. Truman]], see: {{cite news|first=David |last=Nitkin |author2=Harry Merritt |title=A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History |date=March 2, 2007 |url=,0,3453027.story |archiveurl= |archivedate=September 30, 2007 |work=The Baltimore Sun |accessdate=June 24, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}{{cite news|first=Mary |last=Jordan |title=Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own |date=May 13, 2007 |url= |work=The Washington Post |accessdate=June 24, 2008 }}{{cite news|title=Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises |date=September 8, 2007 |publisher=CBS 2 (Chicago) |url= |agency=Associated Press |accessdate=June 24, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 2, 2008 }}</ref>

[[File:BlackhawksWhiteHouse2010.jpg|thumb|Obama with [[Jonathan Toews]] and the [[Stanley Cup]] champion [[Chicago Blackhawks]], 2010]] Obama is a supporter of the [[Chicago White Sox]], and he threw out the first pitch at the [[2005 American League Championship Series|2005 ALCS]] when he was still a senator.<ref>{{cite news |title = Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball |date = August 25, 2008 |first = Mark |last = Silva |work = Chicago Tribune |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = August 29, 2008 }}</ref> In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the [[2009 Major League Baseball All-Star Game|All-Star Game]] while wearing a White Sox jacket.<ref>{{cite web |title = Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit |date = July 14, 2009 |publisher = MLB Fanhouse |url = |accessdate = December 6, 2009 }}</ref> He is also primarily a [[Chicago Bears]] football fan in the [[National Football League|NFL]], but in his childhood and adolescence was a [[Steeler Nation|fan of the Pittsburgh Steelers]], and rooted for them ahead of their victory in [[Super Bowl XLIII]] 12 days after he took office as president.<ref name="Steelers">{{cite news |last = Branigin |first = William |title = Steelers Win Obama's Approval |newspaper = The Washington Post |date = January 30, 2009 |url = |quote = But other than the Bears, the Steelers are probably the team that's closest to my heart. }}</ref> In 2011, Obama invited the [[1985 Chicago Bears season|1985 Chicago Bears]] to the White House; the team had not visited the White House after their [[Super Bowl XX|Super Bowl win]] in 1986 due to the [[Space Shuttle Challenger disaster]].<ref>{{cite web |last = Mayer |first = Larry |url = |title = 1985 Bears honored by President Obama |publisher = [[Chicago Bears]] |date = October 7, 2011 |accessdate = November 4, 2012 |archive-url = |archive-date = May 7, 2013 |dead-url = yes |df = mdy-all }}</ref> He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team,<ref>{{cite news |first = Jodi |last = Kantor |title = One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow |date = June 1, 2007 |url = |work = The New York Times |accessdate = April 28, 2008 |archiveurl =|archivedate=April 1, 2009 |deadurl = no }} See also: {{cite news |title = The Love of the Game |format = video |date = April 15, 2008 |work = Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel |publisher = HBO |url = |accessdate = October 12, 2011 }}</ref> and he is left-handed.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = On First Day, Obama Quickly Sets a New Tone |last = Stolberg |first = Sheryl Gay |author2 = Kirkpatrick, David D. |author3 = Shane, Scott |date = January 22, 2009 |work = The New York Times |page = 1 |accessdate = September 7, 2012 }}</ref>

[[File:Barack Obama playing basketball with members of Congress and Cabinet secretaries 2.jpg|thumb|upright|left|alt=Obama about to take a shot while three other players look at him. One of those players attempts to block Obama.|Obama taking a left-handed [[Jump shot (basketball)|jump shot]] during a [[pickup game]] on the White House basketball court, 2009]]

Obama lived with anthropologist [[Sheila Miyoshi Jager]] while he was a community organizer in Chicago in the 1980s.<ref name="theindependentbeforemichelle">{{cite news|last1=Hosie|first1=Rachel|title=BEFORE MICHELLE: THE STORY OF BARACK OBAMA'S PROPOSAL TO SHEILA MIYOSHI JAGER|url=|accessdate=May 11, 2017|work=The Independent|date=May 3, 2017}}</ref> He proposed to her twice, but both Jager and her parents turned him down.<ref name="theindependentbeforemichelle" /><ref name="tobiasoberlincollegeprofessor">{{cite news|last1=Tobias|first1=Andrew J.|title=Oberlin College professor received unsuccessful marriage proposal from Barack Obama in 1980s, new biography reveals|url=|accessdate=May 11, 2017|work=The Plain Dealer|date=May 3, 2017}}</ref> The relationship was only made public in May 2017, several months after Obama's presidency had ended.<ref name="tobiasoberlincollegeprofessor" />

In June 1989, Obama met [[Michelle Obama|Michelle Robinson]] when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of [[Sidley Austin]].<ref>Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also: {{cite news |first = Sarah |last = Brown |title = Obama '85 masters balancing act |work = The Daily Princetonian |url = |date = December 7, 2005 |accessdate = February 9, 2009 |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 20, 2009 }}</ref> Robinson was assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, and she joined him at several group social functions but declined his initial requests to date.<ref>Obama (2006), p. 329.</ref> They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.<ref>{{cite news |author=Fornek, Scott |title=Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet' |date=October 3, 2007 |url=,CST-NWS-wedding03.stng |archiveurl=,CST-NWS-wedding03.stng |archivedate=January 18, 2010 |work=Chicago Sun-Times |accessdate=April 28, 2008 |deadurl=yes}}</ref> The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Born on the 4th of July |date = July 4, 2008 |accessdate = July 10, 2008 |website = Politico |author = Martin, Jonathan |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 10, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.<ref>Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also: {{cite web |title = Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama |url = |publisher = Gannett News Service |accessdate = April 28, 2008 }}</ref> The Obama daughters attended the [[University of Chicago Laboratory Schools]]. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the [[Sidwell Friends School]].<ref>{{cite web |url = |archiveurl = |title = Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School |website = International Herald Tribune |date = November 22, 2008 |accessdate = July 2, 2015 |archivedate = January 29, 2009 }}</ref> The Obamas have two [[Portuguese Water Dog]]s; the first, a male named [[Bo (dog)|Bo]], was a gift from Senator [[Ted Kennedy]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = One Obama Search Ends With a Puppy Named Bo |work = The New York Times |date = April 13, 2009 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |first = Helene |last = Cooper }}</ref> In 2013, Bo was joined by [[Sunny (dog)|Sunny]], a female.<ref name=Feldmann>{{Cite journal |last = Feldmann |first = Linda |title = New little girl arrives at White House. Meet Sunny Obama. (+video) |url = |journal = Christian Science Monitor |accessdate = August 20, 2013 |date = August 20, 2013 }}</ref>

[[File:DIG13623-230.jpg|thumb|upright|Obama and his wife Michelle at the Civil Rights Summit at the [[LBJ Presidential Library]], 2014]] In 2005, the family applied the proceeds of a book deal and moved from a [[Hyde Park, Chicago]] condominium to a $1.6 million house (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1.6|2005|r=1}} million in {{Inflation-year|US}}) in neighboring [[Kenwood, Chicago]].<ref>{{cite news |first=Jeff |last=Zeleny |title=The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year |date=December 24, 2005 |url=,0,1779783,full.story |work=Chicago Tribune |accessdate=April 28, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 13, 2011 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> The purchase of an adjacent lot—and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend [[Tony Rezko]]—attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.<ref name="corruption charges" />

In December 2007, ''[[Money (magazine)|Money Magazine]]'' estimated Obama's net worth at $1.3&nbsp;million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1.3|2007|r=1}}&nbsp;million in {{Inflation-year|US}}) .<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama's Money |date = December 7, 2007 |url = |publisher = |accessdate = April 28, 2008 |first = Marlys |last = Harris |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 24, 2008 |deadurl = no }}<br />See also:{{cite news |first = Zachary A |last = Goldfarb |title = Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates |date = March 24, 2007 |url = |work = The Washington Post |accessdate = April 28, 2008 }}</ref> Their 2009 tax return showed a household income of $5.5&nbsp;million—up from about $4.2&nbsp;million in 2007 and $1.6&nbsp;million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.<ref>{{cite news |first = Jeff |last = Zeleny |title = Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2&nbsp;Million |url = |date = April 17, 2008 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = April 28, 2008 |archiveurl =|archivedate=April 16, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obamas report $5.5&nbsp;million in income on 2009 tax return |work = The Washington Post |date = April 16, 2010 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |first1 = Michael D. |last1 = Shear |first2 = David S. |last2 = Hilzenrath }}</ref> On his 2010 income of $1.7&nbsp;million, he gave 14% to non-profit organizations, including $131,000 to [[Fisher House Foundation]], a charity assisting wounded veterans' families, allowing them to reside near where the veteran is receiving medical treatments.<ref>{{cite news |url = |date = April 18, 2011 |title = How Much Did President Obama Make in 2010? |work = [[PBS NewsHour]] |first = Paul |last = Solman |archive-url = |archive-date = May 2, 2011 |accessdate = January 27, 2012 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |date = April 27, 2011 |title = The Obamas Gave $131,000 to Fisher House Foundation in 2010; What Is It? |work = [[PBS NewsHour]] |first = Paul |last = Solman |archive-url = |archive-date = January 29, 2014 |accessdate = January 27, 2012 }}</ref> Per his 2012 financial disclosure, Obama may be worth as much as $10&nbsp;million.<ref name="networth12">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama worth as much as $10&nbsp;million |last = Wolf |first = Richard |date = May 16, 2012 |work = [[USA Today]] |accessdate = June 16, 2012 }}</ref>

In early 2010, Michelle spoke about her husband's smoking habit and said that Barack had quit smoking.<ref name="reuters-smoking">Elsner, Alan (December 7, 2008). [ Obama says he won't be smoking in White House"]. Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2010.</ref><ref>Zengerle, Patricia (February 8, 2011). [ "Yes, he did: first lady says Obama quit smoking"]. Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2011.</ref>

On his 55th birthday, August 4, 2016, Obama penned an essay in [[Glamour (magazine)|''Glamour'']], in which he described how his daughters and the presidency have made him a [[feminist]].<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Glamour Exclusive: President Barack Obama Says, "This Is What a Feminist Looks Like" |work=Glamour |date=August 4, 2016 |first=Barack |last=Obama |accessdate=August 5, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Obama Writes Feminist Essay in Glamour |work=The New York Times |date=August 4, 2016 |first=Daniel |last=Victor |accessdate=August 5, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url= |title=President Obama in 'Glamour': It's important Sasha and Malia's dad is a feminist |work=USA Today |date=August 4, 2016 |first=Cara |last=Kelly |accessdate=August 5, 2016}}</ref>

Religious views Edit

Obama is a [[Protestant]] Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life.<ref name="Christian" /> He wrote in ''[[The Audacity of Hope]]'' that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents, as being detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He described his father as a "confirmed [[Atheism|atheist]]" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." Obama explained how, through working with [[black church]]es as a [[Community organizing|community organizer]] while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."<ref name="social change" />

[[File:Obamas at church on Inauguration Day 2013.jpg|thumb|The Obamas worship at [[African Methodist Episcopal Church]] in Washington, D.C., January 2013]] In January 2008, Obama told ''[[Christianity Today]]'': "I am a Christian, and I am a devout Christian. I believe in the [[Redeemer (Christianity)|redemptive death]] and [[resurrection of Jesus]] Christ. I believe that faith gives me a path to be cleansed of sin and have eternal life."<ref>{{cite news |last1 = Pulliam |first1 = Sarah |last2 = Olsen |first2 = Ted |url = |title = Q&A: Barack Obama |work = Christianity Today |date = January 23, 2008 |accessdate = January 4, 2013 }}</ref> On September 27, 2010, Obama released a statement commenting on his religious views saying, "I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't – frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead – being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, [[Golden Rule|treating others as they would treat me]]."<ref name="APbychoice">{{cite news|url= |title=Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner |author=Charles Babington |author2=Darlene Superville |agency=Associated Press |date=September 28, 2010 |work=HuffPost |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 11, 2011 }}</ref><ref name="ABCVideobychoice">{{cite web|url=|title=President Obama: 'I am a Christian By Choice...The Precepts of Jesus Spoke to Me'|publisher=[[ABC News]]|date=September 29, 2010|accessdate=December 27, 2016}}</ref>

Obama met [[Trinity United Church of Christ]] pastor Rev. [[Jeremiah Wright]] in October 1987 and became a member of Trinity in 1992.<ref name="Trinity" /> During Obama's first presidential campaign in May 2008, he resigned from Trinity after [[Jeremiah Wright controversy|some of Wright's statements were criticized]].<ref>{{cite news |agency = Associated Press |date = November 17, 2008 |title = Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized |publisher = MSNBC |url = |accessdate = January 20, 2009 }}</ref> Since moving to Washington, D.C., in 2009, the Obama family has attended several Protestant churches, including [[Shiloh Baptist Church (Washington, D.C.)|Shiloh Baptist Church]] and [[St. John's Episcopal Church, Lafayette Square|St. John's Episcopal Church]], as well as Evergreen Chapel at [[Camp David]], but the members of the family do not attend church on a regular basis.<ref>Parker, Ashley. "[ As the Obamas Celebrate Christmas, Rituals of Faith Become Less Visible]," ''The New York Times'', December 28, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2017.</ref><ref>Gilgoff, Dan. "[ TIME Report, White House Reaction Raise More Questions About Obama's Church Hunt]," ''U.S. News & World Report'', June 30, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2017.</ref><ref>"[ "First Lady: We Use Sundays For Naps If We're Not Going To Church"], CBS DC, April 22, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2017.</ref>

=== Law career ===

Community organizer and Harvard Law School Edit

Two years after graduating from Columbia, Obama was back in Chicago when he was hired as director of the [[Developing Communities Project]], a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in [[Roseland, Chicago|Roseland]], [[West Pullman, Chicago|West Pullman]], and [[Riverdale, Chicago|Riverdale]] on Chicago's [[South Side, Chicago|South Side]]. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988.<ref name="Who's Who 2008" /><ref>{{cite magazine|author=Lizza, Ryan |date=March 19, 2007 |title=The agitator: Barack Obama's unlikely political education |magazine=The New Republic |volume=236 |issue=12 |pages=22–26, 28–29 |issn=0028-6583 |url= |accessdate=August 21, 2007 }}

  • {{cite news|author=Bob Secter |author2=John McCormick |date=March 30, 2007 |title=Portrait of a pragmatist |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |page=1 |url=,0,2491692,full.story |archiveurl= |accessdate=May 18, 2012 |archivedate=December 14, 2009 |deadurl=yes |df= }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295.

  • Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.</ref> He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in [[Altgeld Gardens Homes (Chicago, Illinois)|Altgeld Gardens]].<ref name="Harvard Law 1990a">{{cite news |author = Matchan, Linda |date = February 15, 1990 |title = A Law Review breakthrough |newspaper = Boston Globe |page = 29 |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Corr, John |date = February 27, 1990 |title = From mean streets to hallowed halls |newspaper = The Philadelphia Inquirer |page = C01 |format = paid archive |url =,E&p_field_advanced-1=YMD_date&p_text_advanced-1=%2802/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990%29Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = June 6, 2008 }}</ref> Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the [[Gamaliel Foundation]], a community organizing institute.<ref>{{cite magazine |author = Obama, Barack |date = August–September 1988 |title = Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city |magazine = Illinois Issues |volume = 14 |issue = 8–9 |pages = 40–42 |issn = 0738-9663 }} reprinted in:<br />{{cite book |editor = Knoepfle, Peg |year = 1990 |title = After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois |place = Springfield, IL |publisher = Sangamon State University |pages = 35–40 |isbn = 978-0-9620873-3-2 |quote = He has also been a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, an organizing institute working throughout the Midwest. }}</ref> In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his [[Family of Barack Obama#Paternal relations|paternal relatives]] for the first time.<ref name="Obama 2012">{{cite book |last = Obama |first = Auma |year = 2012 |title = And then life happens: a memoir |location = New York |publisher = St. Martin's Press |isbn = 978-1-250-01005-6 |pages = 189–208, 212–216 }}</ref><ref>Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.

* Maraniss (2012), pp. 564–570.</ref> {{external media | float = right | video1 = [ Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard], April 24, 1990, 11:34, [[WGBH Educational Foundation|Boston TV Digital Archive]]<ref name="wgbh">[ "Ten O'Clock News; Derrick Bell threatens to leave Harvard"], April 24, 1990, 11:34, [[WGBH Educational Foundation|WGBH]], [[American Archive of Public Broadcasting]] (WGBH and the [[Library of Congress]]), Boston and Washington, D.C.. Retrieved September 23, 2016.</ref> Student Barack Obama introduces Professor Derrick Bell starting at 6:25. }}

Obama entered [[Harvard Law School]] in the fall of 1988, living in nearby [[Somerville, Massachusetts]].<ref>{{cite news| newspaper=Somerville Scout| issue=January/February 2014| page=26 |title=Something in the Water|author1=Joey Del Ponte |author2=Somerville Scout Staff}} "Barack Obama lived in the big, ivy-covered brick building at 365 Broadway&nbsp;... From 1988 to 1991, the future president resided in a basement apartment while attending Harvard Law School."</ref> He was selected as an editor of the ''[[Harvard Law Review]]'' at the end of his first year,<ref name="Harvard Law 2007">{{cite news |author = Michael Levenson |author2 = Jonathan Saltzman |date = January 28, 2007 |title = At Harvard Law, a unifying voice |newspaper = Boston Globe |page = 1A |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Kantor, Jodi |date = January 28, 2007 |title = In law school, Obama found political voice |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Mundy, Liza |date = August 12, 2007 |title = A series of fortunate events |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = W10 |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}
  • Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.</ref> president of the journal in his second year,<ref name="Harvard Law 1990a" /><ref name="Harvard Law 1990b">{{cite news |author = Butterfield, Fox |date = February 6, 1990 |title = First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A20 |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Ybarra, Michael J |date = February 7, 1990 |title = Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 3 |url = |accessdate = October 29, 2011 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Drummond, Tammerlin |date = March 12, 1990 |title = Barack Obama's law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service |newspaper = Los Angeles Times |page = E1 |format = paid archive |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite magazine |author = Evans, Gaynelle |date = March 15, 1990 |title = Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama |magazine = Black Issues in Higher Education |volume = 7 |issue = 1 |page = 5 |issn = 0742-0277 |url = |accessdate = May 18, 2012 }}

* {{cite news |author = Pugh, Allison J. |agency = Associated Press |date = April 18, 1990 |title = Law Review's first black president aims to help poor |newspaper = The Miami Herald |page = C01 |url =Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}</ref> and research assistant to the constitutional scholar [[Laurence Tribe]] while at Harvard for two years.<ref>{{YouTube|wzmmBZ7i4BQ}}</ref> During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as an [[Associate attorney|associate]] at the law firms of [[Sidley Austin]] in 1989 and [[Hopkins & Sutter]] in 1990.<ref>{{cite news |author = Aguilar, Louis |date = July 11, 1990 |title = Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 1 (Business) |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }}</ref> After graduating with a [[Juris Doctor|JD]] degree ''[[magna cum laude]]''<ref name="Juris Doctor" /> from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.<ref name="Harvard Law 2007" /> Obama's election as the [[List of African-American firsts|first black president of the ''Harvard Law Review'']] gained national media attention<ref name="Harvard Law 1990a" /><ref name="Harvard Law 1990b" /> and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations,<ref name="Scott 2008a">{{cite news |author = Scott, Janny |date = May 18, 2008 |title = The story of Obama, written by Obama |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2008 }} * Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.</ref> which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as ''[[Dreams from My Father]]''.<ref name="Scott 2008a" />

Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney Edit

In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the [[University of Chicago Law School]] to work on his first book.<ref name="Scott 2008a" /><ref name="Fellow" /> He then taught [[constitutional law]] at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years, first as a [[lecturer]] from 1992 to 1996, and then as a senior lecturer from 1996 to 2004.<ref>{{cite web |date = March 27, 2008 |title = Statement regarding Barack Obama |publisher = University of Chicago Law School |url = |accessdate = June 5, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = June 8, 2008 |deadurl = yes |df = mdy-all }}

  • {{cite web |author = Miller, Joe |date = March 28, 2008 |title = Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor? |publisher = |url = |accessdate = May 18, 2012 }}
  • {{cite web |author = Holan, Angie Drobnic |date = March 7, 2008 |title = Obama's 20 years of experience |publisher = |url = |accessdate = June 10, 2008 }}</ref>

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's [[Project Vote]], a [[voter registration campaign]] with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, leading ''[[Crain's Chicago Business]]'' to name Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.<ref name="Forty" />

He joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then [[of counsel]] from 1996 to 2004. In 1994, he was listed as one of the lawyers in ''Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank'', 94 C 4094 (N.D. Ill.).<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Civil Docket for Case #: 1:94-cv-04094 |author = United States District Court: Northern District of Illinois&nbsp;– CM/ECF LIVE, Ver 3.0 (Chicago) |date = July 6, 1994 |publisher = |accessdate = June 3, 2016 }}</ref> This [[Class-action lawsuit|class action lawsuit]] was filed in 1994 with Selma Buycks-Roberson as lead plaintiff and alleged that Citibank Federal Savings Bank had engaged in practices forbidden under the [[Equal Credit Opportunity Act]] and the [[Fair Housing Act]].<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Buycks-Roberson v. Citibank Fed. Sav. Bank – Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse |publisher = |accessdate = November 25, 2015 }}</ref> The case was settled out of court.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Settlement Agreement |author = United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division |date = January 16, 1988 |publisher = |accessdate = June 3, 2016 }}</ref> Final judgment was issued on May 13, 1998, with Citibank Federal Savings Bank agreeing to pay attorney fees.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Final Judgment and Order of Dismissal |author = United States District Cuurt For the Northern District of Illinois Eastern Division |date = May 13, 1998 |publisher = |accessdate = June 3, 2016 }}</ref> His law license became inactive in 2007.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = The Obamas' Law Licenses |publisher = |date = June 14, 2012 |accessdate = July 16, 2012 |author = Gore, D'Angelo }}</ref><ref name="DavisMiner" />

From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the [[Woods Fund of Chicago]]—which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project—and of the [[Joyce Foundation]].<ref name="Who's Who 2008" /> He served on the board of directors of the [[Chicago Annenberg Challenge]] from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.<ref name="Who's Who 2008" />

=== Legislative career ===

Illinois State Senator (1997–2004) Edit

{{Main|Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama}} [[File:Obamamiltondavis1.jpg|thumb|right|State Senator Obama and others celebrate the naming of a street in Chicago after [[ShoreBank]] co-founder Milton Davis in 1998]] Obama was elected to the [[Illinois Senate]] in 1996, succeeding Democratic State Senator [[Alice Palmer (politician)|Alice Palmer]] from Illinois's 13th District, which, at that time, spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from [[Hyde Park, Chicago|Hyde Park]]–[[Kenwood, Chicago|Kenwood]] south to [[South Shore, Chicago|South Shore]] and west to [[Chicago Lawn, Chicago|Chicago Lawn]].<ref>{{cite news |first=David |last=Jackson |author2=Ray Long |title=Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot |date=April 3, 2007 |url=,0,5693903.story |archiveurl= |work=Chicago Tribune |accessdate=May 18, 2012 |archivedate=October 11, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}

  • {{cite book |author = [[Jesse White (politician)|White, Jesse]] |year = 2001 |chapter = Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment |chapterurl = |title = Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002 |place = Springfield |publisher = [[Illinois Secretary of State]] |page = 65 |accessdate = July 16, 2011 |deadurl = bot: unknown |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 26, 2008 |df = mdy-all |url = }} State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.</ref> Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation that reformed ethics and health care laws.<ref>{{cite news|first=Peter |last=Slevin |title=Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol |date=February 9, 2007 |url= |work=The Washington Post |accessdate=April 20, 2008 }}{{cite news|first=Scott |last=Helman |title=In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists |date=September 23, 2007 |url= |work=Boston Globe |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 16, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }} See also:{{cite news|title=Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics |date=January 17, 2007 |publisher=CBS News |url= |agency=Associated Press |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 12, 2008 |deadurl=no }}</ref> He sponsored a law that increased [[tax credit]]s for low-income workers, negotiated [[welfare reform]], and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.<ref name="Scott20070730">{{cite news |first = Janny |last = Scott |title = In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd |date = July 30, 2007 |url = |work = The New York Times |accessdate = April 20, 2008 |archiveurl =|archivedate=December 10, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's [[payday loan]] regulations and [[Predatory lending|predatory mortgage lending]] regulations aimed at averting home [[foreclosure]]s.<ref>{{cite news|author=Allison, Melissa |date=December 15, 2000 |title=State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing |url= |format=paid archive |work=Chicago Tribune |page=1 (Business) |accessdate=June 1, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 17, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}{{cite news|author=Ray Long |author2=Melissa Allison |date=April 18, 2001 |title=Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures |url= |format=paid archive |work=Chicago Tribune |page=1 |accessdate=June 1, 2008 }}</ref>

He was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was re-elected again in 2002.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = 13th District: Barack Obama |accessdate = April 20, 2008 |date = August 24, 2000 |publisher = Illinois State Senate Democrats |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 12, 2000 }}{{cite web |url = |title = 13th District: Barack Obama |accessdate = April 20, 2008 |date = October 9, 2004 |publisher = Illinois State Senate Democrats |archiveurl = |archivedate = August 2, 2004 }}</ref> In 2000, he lost a [[2000 Illinois's 1st congressional district election|Democratic primary race]] for [[Illinois's 1st congressional district]] in the [[United States House of Representatives]] to four-term incumbent [[Bobby Rush]] by a margin of two to one.<ref name="Democratic primary" />

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.<ref>{{cite news|first=Jackie |last=Calmes |title=Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama |date=February 23, 2007 |url= |work=The Wall Street Journal |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=September 18, 2008 }}</ref> He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor [[racial profiling]] by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.<ref name="Scott20070730" /><ref>{{cite news|author=Tavella, Anne Marie |date=April 14, 2003 |title=Profiling, taping plans pass Senate |url=,%20AND%20taping%20AND%20plans%20AND%20pass%20AND%20Senate&s_dispstring=Profiling,%20taping%20plans%20pass%20Senate%20AND%20date(April_4,_2003%20to%204/4/2003)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=4_April_2003%20to%204/4/2003Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |format=paid archive |work=Daily Herald |page=17 |accessdate=June 1, 2008 }}{{cite news|author=Haynes, V. Dion |date=June 29, 2003 |title=Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review |url= |format=paid archive |work=Chicago Tribune |page=8 |accessdate=June 1, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 17, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}{{cite news|author=Pearson, Rick |date=July 17, 2003 |title=Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation |url= |format=paid archive |work=Chicago Tribune |page=1 (Metro) |accessdate=June 1, 2008 }}</ref> During his 2004 general election campaign for the U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting [[Capital punishment in the United States|death penalty]] reforms.<ref>{{cite news |first = Sam |last = Youngman |author2 = Aaron Blake |title = Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals |date = March 14, 2007 |url = |work = The Hill |accessdate = May 18, 2012 }} See also: {{cite news |title = US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms |date = November 12, 2007 |work = International Herald Tribune |url = |archiveurl = |agency = Associated Press |accessdate = May 18, 2012 |archivedate = June 7, 2008 }}</ref> Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.<ref>{{cite news|first=Melanie |last=Coffee |title=Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat |date=November 6, 2004 |publisher=HPKCC |url= |agency=Associated Press |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 16, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref>

2004 U.S. Senate campaign Edit

{{Main|2004 United States Senate election in Illinois}} [[File:Illinois Senate Election Results by County, 2004.svg|upright=.5|thumb|County results of the 2004 U.S. Senate race in Illinois. Obama won the counties in blue.]] In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race. He created a campaign committee, began raising funds, and lined up political media consultant [[David Axelrod (political consultant)|David Axelrod]] by August 2002. Obama formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.<ref>{{cite news |author = Helman, Scott |date = October 12, 2007 |title = Early defeat launched a rapid political climb |newspaper = [[Boston Globe]] |page = 1A |url = |accessdate = April 13, 2008 }}</ref>

Obama was an early opponent of the [[George W. Bush]] administration's [[2003 invasion of Iraq]].<ref>{{cite news |author = Strausberg, Chinta |date = September 26, 2002 |title = Opposition to war mounts |newspaper = Chicago Defender |page = 1 |url = |archive-url = |dead-url = yes |archive-date = May 11, 2011 |format = paid archive |accessdate = February 3, 2008 }}</ref> On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the [[Iraq Resolution|joint resolution]] authorizing the [[Iraq War]],<ref name="Rose Garden" /> Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago [[Protests against the Iraq War|anti-Iraq War rally]],<ref name="Federal Plaza" /> and spoke out against the war.<ref name="spoke out" /> He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.<ref name="stop the war" />

Decisions by Republican incumbent [[Peter Fitzgerald (politician)|Peter Fitzgerald]] and his Democratic predecessor [[Carol Moseley Braun]] to not participate in the election resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving 15 candidates.<ref>{{cite news |author = Davey, Monica |date = March 7, 2004 |title = Closely watched Illinois Senate race attracts 7 candidates in millionaire range |url = |archiveurl =|archivedate=April 16, 2009 |newspaper = [[The New York Times]] |page = 19 |accessdate = April 13, 2008 }}</ref> In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the [[Democratic National Committee|national Democratic Party]], started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, ''Dreams from My Father''.<ref name="future" /> In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the [[2004 Democratic National Convention]],<ref>{{cite news |author = Bernstein, David |date = June 2007 |title = The Speech |magazine = Chicago Magazine |url = |accessdate = April 13, 2008 }}</ref> seen by 9.1&nbsp;million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.<ref name="status" />

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner [[Jack Ryan (politician)|Jack Ryan]], withdrew from the race in June 2004.<ref>{{cite news |date = June 25, 2004 |title = Ryan drops out of Senate race in Illinois |publisher = CNN |url = |accessdate = May 18, 2012 }}

  • Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271.</ref> Six weeks later, [[Alan Keyes]] accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan.<ref>{{cite news |author = Lannan, Maura Kelly |agency = Associated Press |date = August 9, 2004 |title = Alan Keyes enters U.S. Senate race in Illinois against rising Democratic star |newspaper = Union-Tribune |url = |accessdate = April 13, 2008 }}</ref> In the [[United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004|November 2004 general election]], Obama won with 70% of the vote.<ref name="margin" />

U.S. Senator from Illinois (2005–08) Edit

{{Main|United States Senate career of Barack Obama}} [[File:BarackObamaportrait.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The official portrait of Obama as a member of the United States Senate]] Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 3, 2005,<ref>{{CongBio|o000167|inline=1|date=October 12, 2011}}</ref> becoming the only Senate member of the [[Congressional Black Caucus]].<ref>{{cite web |title = Member Info |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 9, 2008 |publisher = Congressional Black Caucus |accessdate = June 25, 2008 }}</ref> ''[[Congressional Quarterly|CQ Weekly]]'' characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes from 2005 to 2007. Obama announced on November 13, 2008, that he would [[resignation from the United States Senate|resign his Senate seat]] on November 16, 2008, before the start of the [[lame duck (politics)|lame-duck]] session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.<ref name="transition period" />

Legislation Edit

{{See also|List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate}} Obama [[Sponsor (legislative)|cosponsored]] the [[Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act]].<ref>{{cite web |first = 109th Congress, 1st Session |last = U.S. Senate |title = S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act |date = May 12, 2005 |url = |publisher = Library of Congress |accessdate = February 25, 2017}}</ref> He introduced two initiatives that bore his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the [[Nunn–Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction]] concept to conventional weapons;<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President |date = January 11, 2007 |publisher = Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 }} See also: {{cite news |first = Richard G. |last = Lugar |author2 = Barack Obama |title = Junkyard Dogs of War |date = December 3, 2005 |url = |work = The Washington Post |accessdate = April 27, 2008 }}</ref> and the [[Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006]], which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.<ref>{{cite news |first = John |last = McCormack |title = Google Government Gone Viral |date = December 21, 2007 |url = |work = Weekly Standard |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 23, 2008 |deadurl = no }} See also: {{cite web |title = President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act |date = September 26, 2006 |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 1, 2008 |publisher = Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office |accessdate = April 27, 2008 }}</ref> On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama—along with Senators [[Tom Carper]], [[Tom Coburn]], and [[John McCain]]—introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008: 2007–2008 (110th Congress) |publisher = |date = June 3, 2008 |accessdate = May 18, 2012 }}</ref>

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.<ref>{{cite news |last = McIntire |first = Mike |url = |title = Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate |date = February 3, 2008 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl =|archivedate=December 9, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> Regarding [[tort reform]], Obama voted for the [[Class Action Fairness Act of 2005]] and the [[Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008|FISA Amendments Act of 2008]], which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with [[NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07)|NSA warrantless wiretapping]] operations.<ref name="Fisher">{{cite news |url = |title = November Election A Lawyer's Delight |author = Fisher, Daniel |work = Forbes |date = August 11, 2008 |accessdate = January 11, 2009 }}</ref> [[File:Lugar-Obama.jpg|thumb|alt=Gray-haired man and Obama stand, wearing casual polo shirts. Obama wears sunglasses and holds something slung over his right shoulder.|left|Obama and U.S. Senator [[Richard Lugar]] (R-IN) visit a Russian facility for dismantling mobile missiles (August 2005)<ref>{{cite web |title = Nunn–Lugar Report |date = August 2005 |publisher = Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 1, 2008 |accessdate = April 30, 2008 }}</ref>]]

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]] Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.<ref>{{cite web |title = Democratic Republic of the Congo |date = April 2006 |url = |publisher = United States Conference of Catholic Bishops |accessdate = January 26, 2012 |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 8, 2011 }}{{cite web |title = The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo |date = January 5, 2007 |url = |publisher = International Rescue Committee |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = August 7, 2011 }}</ref> In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the [[Honest Leadership and Open Government Act]], which was signed into law in September 2007.<ref>{{cite news|first=Nathaniel |last=Weixel |title=Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel |date=November 15, 2007 |url= |work=The Hill |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 15, 2008 |deadurl=no }}{{cite news|first=Nathaniel |last=Weixel |title=Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation |date=December 5, 2007 |url= |work=The Hill |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 16, 2008 |deadurl=no }} See also: {{cite news|title=Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 |date=September 24, 2007 |publisher=Federal Election Commission |url= |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 11, 2008 |deadurl=yes }}</ref> Obama also introduced two unsuccessful bills: the [[Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act]] to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections,<ref>{{cite news |first = Seth |last = Stern |title = Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation |date = January 31, 2007 |publisher = |url = |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 16, 2008 |deadurl = no }}{{cite web |first = 110th Congress, 1st Session |last = U.S. Senate |title = S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007 |date = January 31, 2007 |url = |publisher = Library of Congress |accessdate = February 25, 2017}} See also: {{cite news |title = Honesty in Elections |date = January 31, 2007 |url = |work = The New York Times |format = editorial |accessdate = April 27, 2008 }}</ref> and the [[Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007]].<ref>{{cite news |first = E. Kasak |last = Krystin |title = Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home |date = February 7, 2007 |publisher = Medill News Service |url = |accessdate = April 27, 2008 }}</ref>

Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act to add safeguards for personality-disorder military discharges.<ref>{{cite web |title = Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action |date = October 1, 2007 |url = |publisher = Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 5, 2010 }}</ref> This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.<ref>{{cite web |title = Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 |date = March 14, 2008 }}</ref> He sponsored the [[Disinvestment from Iran|Iran Sanctions Enabling Act]] supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which was never enacted but later incorporated in the [[Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010]];<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Iran Sanctions Enabling Act of 2009 (2009 – S. 1065)||language=en|access-date=August 27, 2018}}</ref> and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.<ref name="nuclear terrorism" /> Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the [[State Children's Health Insurance Program]], providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.<ref>{{cite web |title = Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members |date = August 2, 2007 |url = |publisher = Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 }}</ref>

Committees Edit

[[File:Barack Obama Iraq 2006.jpg|thumb|Obama speaking with a soldier stationed in Iraq, 2006]] Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for [[United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations|Foreign Relations]], [[United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works|Environment and Public Works]] and [[United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs|Veterans' Affairs]] through December 2006.<ref>{{cite web |url = |date = December 9, 2006 |title = Committee Assignments |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |publisher = Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 9, 2006 }}</ref> In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with [[United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions|Health, Education, Labor and Pensions]] and [[United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs|Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs]].<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Gets New Committee Assignments |date = November 15, 2006 |publisher = Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office |url = |agency = Associated Press |accessdate = April 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 }}</ref> He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on [[United States Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Europe and Regional Security Cooperation|European Affairs]].<ref>{{cite news |first = Tom |last = Baldwin |title = Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience |date = December 21, 2007 |url = |work = Sunday Times (UK) |accessdate = April 27, 2008 }}</ref> As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with [[Mahmoud Abbas]] before Abbas became [[President of the Palestinian National Authority]], and gave a speech at the [[University of Nairobi]] in which he condemned corruption within the Kenyan government.<ref name="Kenyan" />

Presidential campaigns Edit

2008 Edit

{{Main|United States presidential election, 2008|Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008|Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008}}

[[File:Flickr Obama Springfield 01.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph|Obama standing on stage with his wife and daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in [[Springfield, Illinois]], February 10, 2007]]

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the [[Old State Capitol State Historic Site (Illinois)|Old State Capitol]] building in [[Springfield, Illinois]].<ref name="ChicagoTribune_Pearson_20070210">{{cite news|url=,0,3768114.story |title=Obama: I'm running for president |work=Chicago Tribune |author=Pearson, Rick |author2=Long, Ray |date=February 10, 2007 |accessdate=September 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=August 13, 2007 |deadurl=no |df= }}</ref><ref name="BBC20070210">{{cite news |title = Obama Launches Presidential Bid |date = February 10, 2007 |url = |work = BBC News |accessdate = January 14, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 2, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where [[Abraham Lincoln]] delivered his historic [[Lincoln's House Divided Speech|"House Divided"]] speech in 1858.<ref name="ChicagoTribune_Pearson_20070210" /><ref name="ChicagoTribune_Parsons20070210">{{cite news |url = |archive-url = |dead-url = yes |archive-date = May 11, 2011 |title = Obama's launch site: Symbolic Springfield: Announcement venue evokes Lincoln legacy |last = Parsons |first = Christi |date = February 10, 2007 |work = Chicago Tribune |accessdate = June 12, 2009 }}</ref> Obama emphasized issues of rapidly ending the [[Iraq War]], increasing [[Energy policy of the United States|energy independence]], and [[Health care reform in the United States|reforming the health care system]],<ref>{{cite news|title=Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected? |url= |work=The Washington Post |accessdate=April 14, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 9, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }} See also:

  • {{cite book |author = [[Evan Thomas|Thomas, Evan]] |title = A Long Time Coming |publisher = [[PublicAffairs]] |year = 2009 |location = New York |page = 74 |isbn = 978-1586486075 }}
  • {{cite news|first=Michael |last=Falcone |title=Obama's 'One Thing' |date=December 21, 2007 |url= |work=The New York Times |accessdate=April 14, 2008 }}</ref> in a campaign that projected themes of hope and change.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = The Obama promise of hope and change |work = The Independent |location = London |date = November 1, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 15, 2011 }}</ref>

Numerous candidates entered the [[Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2008|Democratic Party presidential primaries]]. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator [[Hillary Clinton]] after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged [[Delegate (American politics)|delegate]]s due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in [[caucus]] states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules.<ref name="allocation" /> On June 7, 2008, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama.<ref>{{cite news |last = Nagourney |first = Adam |first2 = Jeff |last2 = Zeleny |title = Clinton to End Bid and Endorse Obama |url = |work = The New York Times |date = June 5, 2008 |accessdate = November 20, 2010 }}</ref>

[[File:President George W. Bush and Barack Obama meet in Oval Office.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Photograph|Outgoing President [[George W. Bush]] meets with President-elect Obama in the [[Oval Office]] on November 10, 2008]]

On August 23, Obama announced his selection of [[Delaware]] Senator [[Joe Biden]] as his vice presidential running mate.<ref name=nagourney>{{cite news |accessdate = September 20, 2008 |url = |last = Nagourney |first = Adam |first2 = Jeff |last2 = Zeleny |work = The New York Times |date = August 23, 2008 |title = Obama Chooses Biden as Running Mate |archiveurl =|archivedate=April 1, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref> Obama selected Biden from a field speculated to include former Indiana Governor and Senator [[Evan Bayh]] and Virginia Governor [[Tim Kaine]].<ref name=nagourney/> At the [[2008 Democratic National Convention|Democratic National Convention]] in [[Denver]], Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her supporters to endorse Obama, and she and [[Bill Clinton]] gave convention speeches in his support.<ref name="delegates" /> Obama delivered his acceptance speech, not at the center where the Democratic National Convention was held, but at [[Invesco Field at Mile High]] to a crowd of approximately 84,000 people; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.<ref name="npr1409">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama To Accept Nomination at Mile High Stadium |publisher = NPR |date = July 7, 2008 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |author = Mara Liasson, Mara |author2 = Michele Norris }}</ref><ref name="acceptance" /><ref>{{cite news |url=,0,3593116.story|title=Barack Obama, Al Gore Raise the Roof at Invesco Field|newspaper=[[Los Angeles Times]]|first=Robert|last=Lloyd|date=August 29, 2008|accessdate=August 29, 2008}}</ref>

During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.<ref name="small donations" /> On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down [[Campaign finance in the United States#Public financing of campaigns|public financing]] in the general election since the system was created in 1976.<ref name="Bloomberg_Salant_20080619">{{cite news |author = Salant, Jonathan D. |title = Obama Won't Accept Public Money in Election Campaign |url = |publisher = [[Bloomberg L.P.|Bloomberg]] |date = June 19, 2008 |accessdate = June 19, 2008}}</ref>

[[File:ElectoralCollege2008.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|2008 electoral vote results]]

John McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, and he selected [[Sarah Palin]] as his running mate. The two candidates engaged in three [[United States presidential election debates|presidential debates]] in September and October 2008.<ref name="presidential debates" /> On November 4, Obama won the presidency with 365 [[Electoral College (United States)|electoral votes]] to 173 received by McCain.<ref name="electoral votes" /> Obama won 52.9% of the [[Election|popular vote]] to McCain's 45.7%.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = General Election: McCain vs. Obama |accessdate = February 20, 2009 |publisher = Real Clear Politics |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 17, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref> He became the first African American to be elected president.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama wins historic US election |work = BBC News |date = November 5, 2008 |accessdate = November 5, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |accessdate = November 5, 2008 |url = |title = Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls |first = Adam |last = Nagourney |date = November 4, 2008 |work = The New York Times |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 9, 2008 |deadurl = no }}
  • {{cite news |accessdate = November 5, 2008 |url = |title = Obama: 'This is your victory' |publisher = CNN |date = November 5, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = November 4, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> Obama delivered [[Barack Obama election victory speech, 2008|his victory speech]] before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's [[Grant Park (Chicago)|Grant Park]].<ref name="independent1">{{cite news |accessdate = November 5, 2008 |url = |title = Change has come, says President-elect Obama |work = The Independent |location = London |date = November 5, 2008 |last = Johnson |first = Wesley |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 9, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

2012 Edit

{{Main|United States presidential election, 2012|Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012}} [[File:P112912PS-0444 - President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in the Oval Office - crop.jpg|thumb|left|Obama greets former Governor [[Mitt Romney]] in the [[Oval Office]] on November 29, 2012, in their first meeting since Obama's re-election victory over Romney]]

On April 4, 2011, Obama announced his reelection campaign for 2012 in a video titled "It Begins with Us" that he posted on his website and filed election papers with the [[Federal Election Commission]].<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Begins Re-Election Facing New Political Challenges |url = |date = April 4, 2011 |first = Michael D. |last = Shear |work = The New York Times (blog) |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 5, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama announces re-election bid |url = |date = April 4, 2011 |agency = [[United Press International]] |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 10, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Opens 2012 Campaign, With Eye on Money and Independent Voters |url = |date = April 4, 2011 |first = Jeff |last = Zeleny |work = The New York Times |first2 = Jackie |last2 = Calmes |lastauthoramp = yes |accessdate = April 5, 2011 |archiveurl =|archivedate=November 15, 2012 }}</ref> As the incumbent president he ran virtually unopposed in the [[Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2012|Democratic Party presidential primaries]],<ref name="CNN-clinch1">{{cite news |url = |title = Leading presidential candidate to clinch nomination Tuesday |publisher = CNN (blog) |author = Yoon, Robert |date = April 3, 2012 |accessdate = May 2, 2012 }}</ref> and on April 3, 2012, Obama had secured the 2778 [[2012 Democratic National Convention|convention]] delegates needed to win the Democratic nomination.<ref name="CNN-clinch2">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama clinches Democratic nomination |publisher = CNN (blog) |date = April 3, 2012 |accessdate = April 3, 2012 }}</ref>

[[File:ElectoralCollege2012.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|2012 electoral vote results]]

At the [[2012 Democratic National Convention|Democratic National Convention]] in [[Charlotte, North Carolina]], Obama and [[Joe Biden]] were formally nominated by former President [[Bill Clinton]] as the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president in the general election. Their main opponents were Republicans [[Mitt Romney]], the former governor of Massachusetts, and Representative [[Paul Ryan]] of Wisconsin.<ref>{{cite news |last = Cohen |first = Tom |title = Clinton says Obama offers a better path forward for America |url = |publisher = CNN |date = September 6, 2012 |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref>

On November 6, 2012, Obama won 332 [[Electoral College (United States)|electoral votes]], exceeding the 270 required for him to be reelected as president.<ref>{{cite news|last=Lauter |first=David |title=Romney campaign gives up in Florida |url=,0,415187.story |archiveurl= |archivedate=November 9, 2012 |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |date=November 8, 2012 |accessdate=July 5, 2015 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last = Barnes |first = Robert |title = Obama wins a second term as U.S. president |url = |newspaper = The Washington Post |date = November 6, 2012 |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last = Welch |first = William M. |last2 = Strauss |first2 = Gary |title = With win in critical battleground states, Obama wins second term |url = |newspaper = USA Today |date = November 7, 2012 |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref> With 51.1% of the popular vote,<ref name="FEC">{{cite web |url = |title = Election Results for the U.S. President, the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives |publisher = [[Federal Elections Commission]] |author = FEC |date = July 2013 |accessdate = August 20, 2013 |page = 5 }}</ref> Obama became the first Democratic president since [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] to win the [[List of United States presidential elections by popular vote margin|majority of the popular vote]] twice.<ref>{{cite news |last = Brownstein |first = Ronald |title = The U.S. has reached a demographic milestone&nbsp;– and it's not turning back |url = |newspaper = National Journal |date = November 9, 2012 |archive-url = |archive-date = November 11, 2012 |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama's 3 Million Vote, Electoral College Landslide, Majority of States Mandate |last = Nichols |first = John |date = November 9, 2012 |work = The Nation |accessdate = November 18, 2012 }}</ref> Obama addressed supporters and volunteers at Chicago's [[McCormick Place]] after his reelection and said: "Tonight you voted for action, not politics as usual. You elected us to focus on your jobs, not ours. And in the coming weeks and months, I am looking forward to reaching out and working with leaders of both parties."<ref>{{cite news|last=Lee|first=Kristen A.|title=Election 2012: President Obama gives victory speech in front of thousands in Chicago, 'I have never been more hopeful about America{{'-}}|url=|accessdate=November 8, 2012|newspaper=Daily News|location=New York|date=November 7, 2012}}</ref><ref name="NYT20130121">{{cite news| url=|title=Obama Offers Liberal Vision: 'We Must Act{{'-}}|newspaper=[[The New York Times]]|first=Michael|last=Shear|date=January 21, 2013|accessdate=July 10, 2013}}</ref>

Presidency (2009–2017) Edit

{{Main|Presidency of Barack Obama}} {{for timeline|Timeline of the Presidency of Barack Obama}} {{See also|Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet|List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama}}

First 100 days Edit

{{Main|First 100 days of Barack Obama's presidency}} [[File:US President Barack Obama taking his Oath of Office - 2009Jan20.jpg|thumb|Barack Obama takes [[Oath of office of the President of the United States|the oath of office]] administered by [[Chief Justice of the United States|Chief Justice]] [[John Roberts|John G. Roberts Jr.]] at [[United States Capitol|the Capitol]], January 20, 2009|alt=Photograph]]

The [[First inauguration of Barack Obama|inauguration of Barack Obama]] as the 44th President took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office, Obama issued [[executive order]]s and [[Presidential memorandum|presidential memoranda]] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama asks Pentagon for responsible Iraq drawdown |date = January 23, 2009 |url = |work = China Daily |accessdate = September 4, 2009 }}</ref> He ordered the closing of the [[Guantanamo Bay detention camp]],<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Orders Halt to Prosecutions at Guantánamo |last = Glaberson |first = William |date = January 21, 2009 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = February 3, 2009 |archiveurl =|archivedate=April 16, 2009 }}</ref> but Congress prevented the closure by refusing to appropriate the required funds<ref>{{cite news |title = Senate blocks transfer of Gitmo detainees |url = |date = May 20, 2009 |publisher = [[MSNBC]] |agency = Associated Press |mode = cs2 |accessdate = March 22, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title = Presidential Memorandum&nbsp;– Closure of Detention Facilities at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base |url = |date = December 15, 2009 |first = Barack |last = Obama |publisher = [[White House]] |mode = cs2 |accessdate = March 22, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 15, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama signs Defense authorization bill |url = |date = January 7, 2011 |first = Jared |last = Serbu |publisher = [[Federal News Radio]] |mode = cs2 |accessdate = March 22, 2011 }}</ref> and preventing moving any Guantanamo detainee into the U.S. or to other countries.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama's Promise To Close Guantanamo Prison Falls Short |author = Northam, Jackie |date = January 23, 2013 |accessdate = April 22, 2013 |publisher = [[NPR]] }}</ref> Obama reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Executive Order&nbsp;– Presidential Records |accessdate=January 22, 2009 |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 22, 2009 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> He also revoked President [[George W. Bush]]'s restoration of President [[Ronald Reagan]]'s [[Mexico City Policy]] prohibiting federal aid to international family planning organizations that perform or provide counseling about abortion.<ref>{{cite web |last = Obama |first = Barack |date = January 23, 2009 |title = Mexico City Policy and assistance for voluntary population planning (Presidential memorandum) |publisher = The White House |url = |accessdate = September 21, 2012}}

  • {{cite news |last = Meckler |first = Laura |date = January 24, 2009 |title = Obama lifts 'gag rule' on family-planning groups |newspaper = The Wall Street Journal |page = A3 |url = |accessdate = September 21, 2012 }}
  • {{cite news |last1 = Stein |first1 = Rob |last2 = Shear |first2 = Michael |date = January 24, 2009 |title = Funding restored to groups that perform abortions, other care |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A3 |url = |accessdate = September 21, 2012 |quote = Lifting the Mexico City Policy would not permit U.S. tax dollars to be used for abortions, but it would allow funding to resume to groups that provide other services, including counseling about abortions. }}</ref>

Domestic policy Edit

{{See also|Social policy of the Barack Obama administration}} The first bill signed into law by Obama was the [[Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009]], relaxing the [[statute of limitations]] for equal-pay lawsuits.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Signs Equal-Pay Legislation |work = The New York Times |first=Sheryl Gay|last=Stolberg|url = |accessdate = June 15, 2009 |date = January 30, 2009 }}</ref> Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the [[State Children's Health Insurance Program]] (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million uninsured children.<ref>{{cite news|title=Obama signs into law expansion of SCHIP health care program for children |work=Chicago Tribune |url=,0,30310.story |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |first=Noam N. |last=Levey |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 30, 2009 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy that had limited funding of [[embryonic stem cell]] research and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama overturns Bush policy on stem cells |publisher = CNN |date = March 9, 2009 |accessdate = April 18, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 30, 2010 }}</ref>

[[File:Barack Obama addresses joint session of Congress 2009-02-24.jpg|thumb|left|Obama delivering a [[Barack Obama speech to joint session of Congress, February 2009|speech at joint session of Congress]] with Vice President [[Joe Biden]] and [[Speaker of the United States House of Representatives|House Speaker]] [[Nancy Pelosi]] on February 24, 2009]]

Obama appointed two women to serve on the Supreme Court in the first two years of his Presidency. He nominated [[Sonia Sotomayor]] on May 26, 2009 to replace retiring [[Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States|Associate Justice]] [[David Souter]]; she was confirmed on August 6, 2009,<ref>{{cite news |title = Senate confirms Sotomayor for Supreme Court |url = |date = August 6, 2009 |publisher = CNN |accessdate = August 6, 2009 }}</ref> becoming the first Supreme Court Justice of [[Hispanic]] descent.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama nominates Sotomayor to Supreme Court |accessdate = September 13, 2014 }}</ref> Obama nominated [[Elena Kagan]] on May 10, 2010 to replace retiring Associate Justice [[John Paul Stevens]]. She was confirmed on August 5, 2010, bringing the number of women sitting simultaneously on the Court to three justices for the first time in American history.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = New Era Begins on High Court: Kagan Takes Place as Third Woman |last = Sherman |first = Mark |date = October 4, 2010 |agency = Associated Press |accessdate = November 13, 2010 }}</ref>

On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the [[Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010|Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act]], a [[Reconciliation (United States Congress)|reconciliation bill]] that ended the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increased the [[Pell Grant]] scholarship award, and made changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.<ref>{{cite news |last = Parsons |first = Christi |url = |title = Obama signs student loan reforms into law |work = Los Angeles Times |date = March 30, 2010 |accessdate = April 18, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 19, 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |work = The Washington Post |accessdate = April 12, 2010 |title = Obama signs higher-education measure into law |last = Branigin |first = William }}</ref>

[[File:Obama cabinet meeting 2009-11.jpg|thumb|Obama meets with the [[Cabinet of the United States]], November 23, 2009]]

In a [[Space policy of the Barack Obama administration|major space policy speech]] in April 2010, Obama announced a planned change in direction at [[NASA]], the U.S. space agency. He ended plans for a return of [[human spaceflight]] to the moon and development of the [[Ares I]] rocket, [[Ares V]] rocket and [[Constellation program]], in favor of funding Earth science projects, a new rocket type, and research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars, and ongoing missions to the [[International Space Station]].<ref>{{cite news |author = Robert Block, Robert |author2 = Mark K. Matthews |url = |title = White House won't fund NASA moon program |quote = President Obama's budget proposal includes no money for the Ares I and Ares V rocket or Constellation program. Instead, NASA would be asked to monitor climate change and develop a new rocket |date = January 27, 2010 |work = Los Angeles Times |accessdate = January 30, 2011 }}</ref>

President Obama's [[2011 State of the Union Address]] focused on themes of education and innovation, stressing the importance of [[innovation economics]] to make the United States more competitive globally. He spoke of a five-year freeze in domestic spending, eliminating tax breaks for oil companies and reversing tax cuts for the wealthiest Americans, banning congressional [[Earmark (politics)|earmarks]], and reducing healthcare costs. He promised that the United States would have one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 and would be 80% reliant on "[[Sustainable energy|clean]]" electricity.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Pushes Innovation in Tech-Heavy State of the Union |work = PC Magazine |date = January 25, 2011 |first = Chloe |last = Albanesius |url =,2817,2376242,00.asp |accessdate = May 17, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |first = Anne E. |last = Kornblut |author2 = Wilson, Scott |title = State of the Union 2011: 'Win the future,' Obama says |url = |date = January 26, 2011 |work = The Washington Post |accessdate = May 18, 2011 }}</ref>

LGBT rights Edit

On October 8, 2009, Obama signed the [[Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act]], a measure that expanded the [[Hate crime laws in the United States#Federal prosecution of hate crimes|1969 United States federal hate-crime law]] to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.<ref>{{cite news |url= |title=Obama signs hate crimes bill into law |publisher=CNN |date=October 28, 2009 |accessdate=October 12, 2011}}</ref>

On October 30, 2009, Obama lifted the ban on travel to the United States by those infected with [[HIV]], which was celebrated by [[Immigration Equality]].<ref>Preston, Julia (October 30, 2009),[ "Obama Lifts a Ban on Entry Into U.S. by H.I.V.-Positive People"], ''The New York Times''. Retrieved February 8, 2017.</ref>

On December 22, 2010, Obama signed the [[Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010]], which fulfilled a key promise made in the 2008 presidential campaign<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = 'Don't ask, don't tell' repealed as Obama signs landmark law |work = The Guardian |location = London |date = December 22, 2010 |accessdate = June 2, 2018 |<!--archiveurl = |archivedate = December 23, 2010--> }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama to delay 'don't ask, don't tell' repeal |first= Rowan|last= Scarborough|work = The Washington Times |date = November 21, 2008 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 25, 2011 }}</ref> to end the [[Don't ask, don't tell]] policy of 1993 that had prevented gay and lesbian people from serving openly in the [[United States Armed Forces]].<ref>{{cite web |author = Lee, Jesse |url = |title = The President Signs Repeal of "Don't Ask Don't Tell": "Out of Many, We Are One" |publisher = The White House |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 25, 2010 |date = December 22, 2010 }}</ref> In 2016, the [[The Pentagon|Pentagon]] ended the policy that also barred [[transgender]] people from serving openly in the military.<ref name=TransBan1>{{cite news|url=|title=US military ends ban on transgender service members|work=The Guardian|date=June 30, 2016}}</ref>

As a candidate for the Illinois state senate in 1996, Obama had said that he favored legalizing [[Same-sex marriage in the United States|same-sex marriage]].<ref name="WCT0114">{{cite news |last = Baim |first = Tracy |title = Windy City Times exclusive: Obama's Marriage Views Changed. WCT Examines His Step Back |url = |accessdate = May 10, 2012 |newspaper = Windy City Times |date = January 14, 2009 }}</ref> By the time of his Senate run in 2004, he said that he supported civil unions and domestic partnerships for same-sex partners, but he opposed same-sex marriages.<ref name="WCT0204">{{cite news |last = Baim |first = Tracy |title = Obama Seeks U.S. Senate seat |url = |accessdate = May 10, 2012 |newspaper = Windy City Times |date = February 4, 2004 }}</ref> In 2008, he reaffirmed this position by stating "I believe marriage is between a man and a woman. I am not in favor of gay marriage."<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=President Barack Obama's shifting stance on gay marriage|work=@politifact|access-date=November 28, 2018|language=en}}</ref> On May 9, 2012, shortly after the official launch of his campaign for re-election as president, Obama said his views had evolved, and he publicly affirmed his personal support for the legalization of same-sex marriage, becoming the first sitting U.S. president to do so.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama backs same-sex marriage |publisher = [[CBS News]] |date = May 9, 2012 |accessdate = May 9, 2012 }}</ref><ref name="The Huffington Post">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Backs Gay Marriage |author = Stein, Sam |date = May 9, 2012 |work = HuffPost |publisher = AOL Inc |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref>

[[File:Celebrating a new America -lovewins 58242 (18588276403).jpg|thumb|The [[White House]] was illuminated in rainbow colors on the evening of the Supreme Court same-sex marriage ruling, June 26, 2015.]]

During his second [[Second inauguration of Barack Obama|inaugural address]] on January 21, 2013,<ref name="NYT20130121" /> Obama became the first U.S. President in office to call for full equality for gay Americans: "Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law – for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well." This was the first time that a president mentioned [[LGBT rights in the United States|gay rights]] or the word "gay" in an inaugural address.<ref>{{cite news |last = Robillard |first = Kevin |title = First inaugural use of the word 'gay' |url = |accessdate = January 21, 2013 |publisher = Politico |date = January 21, 2013 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Inauguration Speech Makes History With Mention of Gay Rights Struggle, Stonewall Uprising |url = |work = HuffPost |accessdate = January 21, 2013 |first = Noah |last = Michelson |date = January 21, 2013 }}</ref>

In 2013, the Obama Administration filed briefs that urged the [[Supreme Court of the United States|Supreme Court]] to rule in favor of same-sex couples in the cases of ''[[Hollingsworth v. Perry]]'' (regarding [[Same-sex marriage in the United States|same-sex marriage]])<ref name="huffpo-amicus">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Administration: Gay Marriage Ban Unconstitutional In Prop. 8 Supreme Court Case |last = Reilly |first = Ryan J. |date = February 28, 2013 |work = [[HuffPost]] |accessdate = April 21, 2013 }}</ref> and ''[[United States v. Windsor]]'' (regarding the [[Defense of Marriage Act]]).<ref name="cnn-amicus">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama administration weighs in on defense of marriage law |last = Mears |first = Bill |date = February 27, 2013 |publisher = CNN |accessdate = April 21, 2013 }}</ref> Then, following the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in ''[[Obergefell v. Hodges]]'' (ruling same-sex marriage to be a fundamental right), Obama asserted that, "This decision affirms what millions of Americans already believe in their hearts: When all Americans are treated as equal we are all more free."<ref name="remarksDecision">{{cite web |url = |title = Remarks by the President on the Supreme Court Decision on Marriage Equality |publisher = The White House |accessdate = October 25, 2015 |date = June 26, 2015 }}</ref>

On July 30, 2015, the White House Office of National AIDS Policy revised its strategy for addressing the disease, which included widespread testing and linkage to healthcare, which was celebrated by the [[Human Rights Campaign]].<ref>[ "Obama Administration Releases Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategy"], Human Rights Campaign. July 30, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2017</ref>

White House advisory and oversight groups Edit

On March 11, 2009, Obama created the [[White House Council on Women and Girls]], which formed part of the [[White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs|Office of Intergovernmental Affairs]], having been established by {{Executive Order|13506}} with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to the welfare of American women and girls.<ref name="Executive">''Executive Order 13506'', Washington, DC: President Barack Obama, The White House, March 11, 2009, Obama, B.. Retrieved January 27, 2014.</ref> The Council was chaired by [[Senior Advisor to the President]] [[Valerie Jarrett]].<ref name="Sexualassault">{{cite web |url = |title = A renewed call to action to end rape and sexual assault |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = January 23, 2014 }}</ref> Obama also established the [[White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault]] through a government memorandum on January 22, 2014, with a broad mandate to advise him on issues relating to sexual assault on college and university campuses throughout the United States.<ref name="Sexualassault" /><ref name="Memo">{{cite web |url = |title = Memorandum: Establishing White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = January 22, 2014 }}</ref><ref name="Freedom">{{cite web |url = |title = Obama admin: Freedom from sexual assault a basic human right |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = January 22, 2014 }}</ref> The co-chairs of the Task Force were Vice President [[Joe Biden]] and Jarrett.<ref name="Memo" /> The Task Force was a development out of the White House Council on Women and Girls and [[Office of the Vice President of the United States]], and prior to that, the 1994 [[Violence Against Women Act]] that was first drafted by Biden.<ref name="Report">[ "Rape and sexual assault: A renewed call to action"], ''White House Council on Women and Girls'', Washington, D.C.: White House Council on Women and Girls & Office of the Vice President, January 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014.</ref>

Economic policy Edit

{{Main|Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration}} [[File:20090124 WeeklyAddress.ogv|thumbtime=1:3|thumb|Obama presents his first [[commons:Obama Administration weekly video addresses|weekly address]] as President of the United States on January 24, 2009, discussing the [[American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009]]|alt=Photograph]]

On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the [[American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009]], a $787 billion [[stimulus (economics)|economic stimulus]] package aimed at helping the economy recover from the [[Great Recession|deepening worldwide recession]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Stimulus package en route to Obama's desk |accessdate = March 29, 2009 |publisher = CNN |date = February 14, 2009 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 30, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref> The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and [[tax incentive|incentives]], and direct assistance to individuals.<ref name="direct assistance" />

[[File:U.S. Total Deficits vs. National Debt Increases 2001-2010.png|thumb|[[United States federal budget|Deficit]] and [[National debt of the United States|debt]] increases, 2001–16]]

In March, Obama's [[Treasury Secretary]], [[Timothy Geithner]], took further steps to manage the [[financial crisis of 2007–08|financial crisis]], including introducing the [[Public–Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets]], which contains provisions for buying up to two trillion dollars in depreciated real estate assets.<ref name="markets opened" />

Obama intervened in the [[automotive industry crisis of 2008–10|troubled automotive industry]]<ref>{{cite news|title=White House questions viability of GM, Chrysler |date=March 30, 2009 |work=HuffPost |url= |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 7, 2009 }}</ref> in March 2009, renewing loans for [[General Motors]] and [[Chrysler]] to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the [[Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization|sale of Chrysler]] to Italian automaker [[Fiat]]<ref>{{cite news |title = Chrysler and Union Agree to Deal Before Federal Deadline |url = |work = The New York Times |first1 = Nick |last1 = Bunkley |first2 = Bill |last2 = Vlasic |date = April 27, 2009 |accessdate = April 12, 2010 }}</ref> and a [[General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization|reorganization of GM]] giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government taking a 12% stake.<ref>{{cite web|title=GM Begins Bankruptcy Process With Filing for Affiliate |first1=John |last1=Hughes |first2=Caroline |last2=Salas |first3=Jeff |last3=Green |first4=Bob |last4=Van Voris |url= |website=[[Bloomberg News]] |date=June 1, 2009 |accessdate=July 5, 2015 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 13, 2010 }}</ref> In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment.<ref name="Christopher Conkey and Louise Radnofsky">{{cite news |title = Obama Presses Cabinet to Speed Stimulus Spending |date = June 9, 2009 |work = The Wall Street Journal |publisher = News Corp |url = |first1 = Christopher |last1 = Conkey |first2 = Louise |last2 = Radnofsky |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref> He signed into law the [[Car Allowance Rebate System]], known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", that temporarily boosted the economy.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = U.S. Says 'Cash for Clunkers' Program Will End on Monday |author = Dana Hedgpeth |work = The Washington Post |date = August 21, 2009 |accessdate = March 26, 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url =,8599,1918692,00.html |title = Was Cash for Clunkers a Success? |author = Joseph R. Szczesny |work = Time |date = August 26, 2009 |accessdate = March 26, 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1 = Mian |first1 = Atif R. |first2 = Amir |last2 = Sufi |title = The Effects of Fiscal Stimulus: Evidence from the 2009 'Cash for Clunkers' Program |date = September 1, 2010 |ssrn = 1670759 |doi = 10.2139/ssrn.1670759 }}</ref>

The Bush and Obama administrations authorized spending and loan guarantees from the [[Federal Reserve System|Federal Reserve]] and the Treasury Department. These guarantees totaled about $11.5 trillion, but only $3 trillion was spent by the end of November 2009.<ref>{{cite news |title ='s bailout tracker |publisher=CNNMoney |page = 20 |volume = 06 |url = |accessdate = March 26, 2010 |author = Goldman, David |date = April 6, 2009 }}</ref> Obama and the [[Congressional Budget Office]] predicted the 2010 [[2010 United States federal budget|budget deficit]] would be $1.5 trillion or 10.6% of the nation's [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4 trillion or 9.9% of GDP.<ref>{{cite news |last = Montgomery |first = Lori |title = Federal budget deficit to exceed $1.4&nbsp;trillion in 2010 and 2011 |url = |work = The Washington Post |accessdate = July 29, 2010 |date = July 24, 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |first2 = Jeff |last2 = Mason |first = Alister |last = Bull |title = Obama's 2010 budget: deficit soars amid job spending |url = |agency = Reuters |accessdate = July 29, 2010 |date = February 1, 2010 }}</ref> For 2011, the administration predicted the deficit would shrink to $1.34 trillion, and the 10-year deficit would increase to $8.53 trillion or 90% of GDP.<ref>{{cite news |last = Dickson |first = David M. |title = CBO report: Debt will rise to 90% of GDP |url = |work = The Washington Times |agency = Associated Press |accessdate = July 29, 2010 |date = March 26, 2010 }}</ref> The most recent increase in the U.S. [[United States debt ceiling|debt ceiling]] to $17.2 trillion took effect in February 2014.<ref>{{cite news |last = Sahadi |first = Jeanne |title = Where's the debt ceiling now? |url = |accessdate = March 21, 2014 |publisher = CNN |date = February 12, 2014 }}</ref> On August 2, 2011, after a lengthy congressional debate over whether to raise the nation's debt limit, Obama signed the bipartisan [[Budget Control Act of 2011]]. The legislation enforces limits on discretionary spending until 2021, establishes a procedure to increase the debt limit, creates a Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction to propose further deficit reduction with a stated goal of achieving at least $1.5 trillion in budgetary savings over 10 years, and establishes automatic procedures for reducing spending by as much as $1.2 trillion if legislation originating with the new joint select committee does not achieve such savings.<ref>{{cite web |author = NBC's Sylvie Stein |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 14, 2012 |title = First Read&nbsp;– A breakdown of the debt-limit legislation |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = August 3, 2011 }}</ref> By passing the legislation, Congress was able to prevent a [[Federal government of the United States|U.S. government]] [[Default (finance)|default]] on its obligations.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = House passes debt ceiling bill |publisher = MSNBC |date = March 8, 2011 |accessdate = August 3, 2011 }}</ref>

[[File:US Employment Statistics.svg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|US employment statistics ([[unemployment rate]] and monthly changes in net employment) during Obama's tenure as U.S. President<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Unemployment Rate |publisher = [[Bureau of Labor Statistics]] |accessdate=September 12, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = 1-month net change in employment |publisher = [[Bureau of Labor Statistics]] |accessdate=September 12, 2018}}</ref>]]

As it did throughout 2008, the unemployment rate rose in 2009, reaching a peak in October at 10.0% and averaging 10.0% in the fourth quarter. Following a decrease to 9.7% in the first quarter of 2010, the unemployment rate fell to 9.6% in the second quarter, where it remained for the rest of the year.<ref name="Theodossiou">{{cite journal |last1 = Theodossiou |first1 = Eleni |last2 = Hipple |first2 = Steven F. |year = 2011 |title = Unemployment Remains High in 2010 |journal = Monthly Labor Review |volume = 134 |issue = 3 |pages = 3–22 |url = |accessdate = April 7, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 8, 2011 }}</ref> Between February and December 2010, employment rose by 0.8%, which was less than the average of 1.9% experienced during comparable periods in the past four employment recoveries.<ref name="Eddlemon">{{cite journal |last1 = Eddlemon |first1 = John P. |year = 2011 |title = Payroll Employment Turns the Corner in 2010 |journal = Monthly Labor Review |volume = 134 |issue = 3 |pages = 23–32 |url = |accessdate = April 7, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 6, 2011 }}</ref> By November 2012, the unemployment rate fell to 7.7%,<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Unemployment Rate |publisher = [[Bureau of Labor Statistics]] |accessdate = December 11, 2012 }}</ref> decreasing to 6.7% in the last month of 2013.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Unemployment Rate |publisher = [[Bureau of Labor Statistics]] |accessdate = January 10, 2014 }}</ref> During 2014, the unemployment rate continued to decline, falling to 6.3% in the first quarter.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Unemployment Rate |publisher = [[Bureau of Labor Statistics]] |accessdate = June 6, 2014 }}</ref> GDP growth returned in the third quarter of 2009, expanding at a rate of 1.6%, followed by a 5.0% increase in the fourth quarter.<ref name="BEA1">{{cite web |url = |title = Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Quarterly) |website = National Income and Product Accounts Table |publisher = [[Bureau of Economic Analysis]] |accessdate = April 7, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 12, 2011 |deadurl = yes |df = mdy-all }}</ref> Growth continued in 2010, posting an increase of 3.7% in the first quarter, with lesser gains throughout the rest of the year.<ref name="BEA1" /> In July 2010, the [[Federal Reserve System|Federal Reserve]] noted that economic activity continued to increase, but its pace had slowed, and chairman [[Ben Bernanke]] said the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain".<ref>{{cite web |last = Harding |first = Robin |title = Beige Book survey reports signs of slowdown |url = |website = Financial Times |accessdate = July 29, 2010 |date = July 28, 2010 |archiveurl =|archivedate=July 29, 2010 }}</ref> Overall, the economy expanded at a rate of 2.9% in 2010.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (Annual) |website = National Income and Product Accounts Table |publisher = Bureau of Economic Analysis |accessdate = April 7, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 12, 2011 |deadurl = yes |df = mdy-all }}</ref>

The [[Congressional Budget Office]] (CBO) and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth.<ref name="estimated" /><ref name="newc" /> The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1&nbsp;million,<ref name="newc">{{cite news |url = |title = New Consensus Sees Stimulus Package as Worthy Step |work = The New York Times |date = November 20, 2009 |accessdate = December 21, 2010 |first1 = Jackie |last1 = Calmes |first2 = Michael |last2 = Cooper |archiveurl =|archivedate=May 11, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = CBO: Stimulus created as many as 2.1&nbsp;million jobs |date = February 23, 2010 |accessdate = April 25, 2010 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Too Little of a Good Thing |work = The New York Times |date = November 2, 2009 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |first = Paul |last = Krugman }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last = Isidore |first = Chris |url = |title = Best economic growth in six years |publisher = CNN |date = January 29, 2010 |accessdate = April 18, 2010 }}</ref> while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package."<ref name="estimated">{{cite web |url = |title = Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output |publisher = Congressional Budget Office |accessdate = February 21, 2012 }}</ref> Although an April 2010, survey of members of the [[National Association for Business Economics]] showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of 68 respondents believed that the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=New NABE Survey Shows Business Recovery Gaining Momentum, with More Jobs Ahead |accessdate=April 26, 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 2, 2010 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> The economy of the United States has grown faster than the other original [[NATO]] members by a wider margin under President Obama than it has anytime since the end of [[World War II]].<ref>Politics that Work, [ "U.S. GDP Growth Relative to Original NATO Members"], ''Politics that Work'', March 9, 2015</ref> The [[OECD|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]] credits the much faster growth in the United States to the stimulus plan of the US and the austerity measures in the European Union.<ref>Irene Chapple, [ "OECD: U.S. will recover faster, Europe faces unemployment crisis"], CNN, May 29, 2013</ref>

Within a month of the [[2010 United States elections|2010 midterm elections]], Obama announced a compromise deal with the Congressional Republican leadership that included a temporary, two-year extension of the [[Bush tax cuts|2001 and 2003 income tax rates]], a one-year [[Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax|payroll tax]] reduction, continuation of unemployment benefits, and a new rate and exemption amount for [[Estate tax in the United States|estate taxes]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Democrats Skeptical of Obama on New Tax Plan |author = Herszenhorn, David M. |author2 = Stolberg, Sheryl Gay |newspaper = The New York Times |date = December 7, 2010 }}</ref> The compromise overcame opposition from some in both parties, and the resulting $858 billion [[Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010]] passed with bipartisan majorities in both houses of Congress before Obama signed it on December 17, 2010.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama signs tax deal into law |publisher = CNN |date = December 17, 2010 |accessdate = December 17, 2010 }}</ref>

In December 2013, Obama declared that growing [[Income inequality in the United States|income inequality]] is a "defining challenge of our time" and called on Congress to bolster the safety net and raise wages. This came on the heels of the [[Fast food worker strikes|nationwide strikes of fast-food workers]] and [[Pope Francis]]' criticism of inequality and [[trickle-down economics]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama: Income Inequality a Defining Challenge |first = Jim |last = Kuhnhenn |agency = Associated Press |date = December 5, 2013 |accessdate = January 9, 2014 }}</ref>

Obama urged Congress to ratify a 12-nation free trade pact called the [[Trans-Pacific Partnership]].<ref>{{cite web |url= |title=President Obama uses his final months to bring congressional approval of a 12-nation free trade pact called the Trans-Pacific Partnership |date=September 5, 2016 |publisher=CBS News |access-date=September 5, 2016}}</ref>

Environmental policy Edit

{{See also|Climate change policy of the United States}} [[File:Obama-venice-la.jpg|thumb|Obama at a 2010 briefing on the [[BP oil spill]] at the [[United States Coast Guard|Coast Guard]] Station Venice in [[Venice, Louisiana]]]]

On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories, and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb [[global warming]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |work = The New York Times |first = John M. |last = Broder |title = E.P.A. Moves to Curtail Greenhouse Gas Emissions |date = October 1, 2009 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 23, 2012 |title = US moves to limit industrial greenhouse gas emissions |publisher = Google News |agency = Agence France-Presse |date = October 1, 2009 |accessdate = April 18, 2010 }}</ref>

On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore [[drilling rig]] at the [[Macondo Prospect]] in the [[Gulf of Mexico]], causing a [[Deepwater Horizon oil spill|major sustained oil leak]]. Obama visited the Gulf, announced a federal investigation, and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by [[United States Secretary of the Interior|Secretary of the Interior]] [[Ken Salazar]] and concurrent Congressional hearings. He then announced a six-month moratorium on new [[deepwater drilling]] permits and leases, pending regulatory review.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama Halts Drilling Projects, Defends Actions |publisher = NPR |date = May 27, 2010 |url = }}</ref> As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.<ref>{{cite news |first = Patrik |last = Jonsson |url = |title = Gulf oil spill: Obama's big political test |work = [[The Christian Science Monitor]] |date = May 29, 2010 |accessdate = June 6, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = June 1, 2010 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

In July 2013, Obama expressed reservations and stated he "would reject the [[Keystone XL pipeline]] if it increased carbon pollution" or "greenhouse emissions".<ref>Goldenberg, Suzanne (July 28, 2013). [ "Barack Obama expresses reservations about Keystone XL pipeline project"]. ''The Guardian'' (London).</ref><ref>Stein, Sam (June 25, 2013). [ Obama: Keystone XL Should Not Be Approved If It Will Increase Greenhouse Gas Emissions]. ''HuffPost'' (US).</ref> Obama's advisers called for a halt to [[petroleum exploration in the Arctic]] in January 2013.<ref>Goldenberg, Suzanne (January 18, 2013).[ "Shell's plans in Arctic at risk as Obama advisers call for halt to oil exploration"]. ''The Guardian'' (London).</ref> On February 24, 2015, Obama vetoed a bill that would authorize the pipeline.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Obama Vetoes Keystone XL Pipeline Bill |date = February 24, 2015 |accessdate = February 24, 2015 |publisher = NPR }}</ref> It was the third veto of Obama's presidency and his first major veto.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Keystone veto override fails |date = March 4, 2015 |first = Laura |last = Barron-Lopez |website = [[The Hill (newspaper)|The Hill]] |publisher = Capitol Hill Publishing |accessdate = July 2, 2015 }}</ref>

Obama emphasized the [[Conservation movement|conservation]] of [[federal lands]] during his term in office. He used his power under the [[Antiquities Act]] to create 25 new [[National monument (United States)|national monuments]] during his presidency and expand four others, protecting a total of {{convert|553000000|acre|ha}} of federal lands and waters, more than any other U.S. president.<ref name="Monuments">Juliet Eilperin & Brady Dennis, [ With new monuments in Nevada, Utah, Obama adds to his environmental legacy], ''The Washington Post'' (December 28, 2016). * [ Monuments Man], ''The New York Times'' (December 31, 2016). * [ Obama's Newly Designated National Monuments Upset Some Lawmakers], NPR, ''[[All Things Considered]]'' (December 29, 2016) * Amy R. Connolly, [ Obama expands public lands more than any U.S. president], [[United Press International]] (February 13, 2016).</ref>

Health care reform Edit

{{Main|Health care reform in the United States}} [[File:Obama signs health care-20100323.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph|Obama signs the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act at the White House, March 23, 2010]]

Obama called for [[United States Congress|Congress]] to pass legislation reforming [[health care in the United States]], a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal.<ref name="health reform" /> He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900 billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the [[public health insurance option|public option]], to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for [[pre-existing condition]]s, and require every American to carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama, Armed With Details, Says Health Plan Is Necessary |author = Stolberg, Sheryl Gay |author2 = Zeleny, Jeff |date = September 9, 2009 |newspaper = The New York Times |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |first = Mike |last = Allen |url = |title = Barack Obama will hedge on public option |website = [[Politico]] |accessdate = July 5, 2015 |date = September 9, 2009 }}</ref>

[[File:PPACA Premium Chart.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|left|Maximum Out-of-Pocket Premium as Percentage of Family Income and [[federal poverty level]], under [[Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act]], starting in 2014 (Source: [[Congressional Research Service|CRS]])<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Health Insurance Premium Credits in the PPACA |publisher = Congressional Research Service |accessdate = May 17, 2015 }}</ref>]]

On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009.<ref name="health reform">{{cite web|url= |title=Obama July 22, 2009 press conference. Transcript |website=[[Chicago Sun-Times]] |date=July 22, 2009 |accessdate=July 5, 2015 |first=Lynn |last=Sweet |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 16, 2015 }}</ref> After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered [[Barack Obama speech to joint session of Congress, September 2009|a speech to a joint session of Congress]] on September 9 where he addressed concerns over the proposals.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama calls for Congress to face health care challenge |date = September 9, 2009 |accessdate = September 9, 2009 |publisher = CNN |archiveurl = |archivedate = September 10, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref> In March 2009, Obama lifted a ban on using federal funds for stem cell research.<ref>{{Cite news |url = |title = Stem cell |author = Daniel Nasaw |newspaper = The Guardian |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = March 10, 2009 }}</ref>

On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House.<ref name="nyt1">{{cite news |url = |title = Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House |last = Hulse |first = Carl |author2 = Robert Pear |date = November 7, 2009 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = November 8, 2009 |archiveurl =|archivedate=March 31, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref><ref name="nyt">{{cite news |url = |title = Abortion Was at Heart of Wrangling |last = Herszenhorn |first = David M. |author2 = Jackie Calmes |date = December 7, 2009 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = December 6, 2009 |archiveurl =|archivedate=March 31, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref> On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Senate Says Yes To Landmark Health Bill |author = Hensley, Scott |date = December 24, 2009 |accessdate = December 24, 2009 |publisher = [[NPR]] |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 21, 2010 |deadurl = no }}</ref> On March 21, 2010, the [[Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act]] (ACA) passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Health Care Reform, at Last |newspaper = The New York Times |date = March 21, 2010 |accessdate = March 22, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 26, 2010 }}</ref> Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Signs Landmark Health Care Bill |date = March 23, 2010 |accessdate = March 23, 2010 |newspaper = The New York Times |author = Gay Stolberg, Sheryl |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 25, 2010 }}</ref>

The ACA includes [[Provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act|health-related provisions]], most of which took effect in 2014, including expanding [[Medicaid]] eligibility for people making up to 133% of the [[federal poverty level]] (FPL) starting in 2014,<ref name="cnn_ref1">{{cite news |last = Rice |first = Sabriya |url = |title = 5 key things to remember about health care reform |publisher = CNN |date = March 25, 2010 |accessdate = January 6, 2013 }}</ref> subsidizing insurance premiums for people making up to 400% of the FPL ($88,000 for family of four in 2010) so their maximum "out-of-pocket" payment for annual premiums will be from 2% to 9.5% of income,<ref name="whitehouse" /><ref>{{cite news |last = Grier |first = Peter |url = |date = March 20, 2010 |title = Health Care Reform Bill 101 |newspaper = [[The Christian Science Monitor]] |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref> providing incentives for businesses to provide health care benefits, prohibiting denial of coverage and denial of claims based on pre-existing conditions, establishing [[health insurance exchange]]s, prohibiting annual coverage caps, and support for medical research. According to White House and CBO figures, the maximum share of income that enrollees would have to pay would vary depending on their income relative to the federal poverty level.<ref name="whitehouse">{{cite web |url = |title = Policies to Improve Affordability and Accountability |publisher = The White House |accessdate = January 6, 2013}}</ref><ref name="cbo_est">{{cite web |last = Elmendorf |first = Douglas W. |url = |title = An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act |publisher = Congressional Budget Office |date = November 30, 2009 |accessdate = April 9, 2012 }}</ref>

[[File:Percentage of Individuals in the United States Without Health Insurance, 1963-2015.png|thumb|Percentage of Individuals in the United States without Health Insurance, 1963–2015 (Source: [[JAMA (journal)|JAMA]])<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Obama|first1=Barack|title=United States Health Care Reform|journal=JAMA|date=August 2, 2016|volume=316|issue=5|pages=525–532|doi=10.1001/jama.2016.9797|pmid=27400401|issn=0098-7484|pmc=5069435}}</ref>]]

The costs of these provisions are offset by taxes, fees, and cost-saving measures, such as new Medicare taxes for those in high-income [[tax bracket|brackets]], taxes on [[indoor tanning]], cuts to the [[Medicare Advantage]] program in favor of traditional Medicare, and fees on medical devices and pharmaceutical companies;<ref>{{Cite journal |last = Grier |first = Peter |date = March 21, 2010 |url = |title = Health care reform bill 101: Who will pay for reform? |journal = Christian Science Monitor |accessdate = July 5, 2015 }}</ref> there is also a tax penalty for those who do not obtain health insurance, unless they are exempt due to low income or other reasons.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Health care reform bill 101: Who must buy insurance? |last = Grier |first = Peter |date = March 19, 2010 |work = [[The Christian Science Monitor]] |accessdate = April 7, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 5, 2010 }}</ref> In March 2010, the CBO estimated that the net effect of both laws will be a reduction in the federal deficit by $143 billion over the first decade.<ref>{{cite web |last = Elmendorf |first = Douglas W. |title = H.R. 4872, Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Final Health Care Legislation) |url = |publisher = Congressional Budget Office |accessdate = January 6, 2013 }}</ref>

The law faced several legal challenges, primarily based on the argument that an individual mandate requiring Americans to buy health insurance was unconstitutional. On June 28, 2012, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5–4 vote in ''[[National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius]]'' that the mandate was constitutional under the U.S. Congress's taxing authority.<ref name="WP-uphold">{{cite news |first = Robert |last = Barnes |url = |title = Supreme Court upholds Obama health care overhaul by 5–4 vote, approving insurance requirement |date = June 28, 2012 |work = The Washington Post |agency = Associated Press |accessdate = June 29, 2012 }}</ref> In ''[[Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.|Burwell v. Hobby Lobby]]'' the Court ruled that "closely-held" for-profit corporations could be exempt on religious grounds under the [[Religious Freedom Restoration Act]] from regulations adopted under the ACA that would have required them to pay for insurance that covered certain contraceptives. In June 2015, the Court ruled 6–3 in ''[[King v. Burwell]]'' that subsidies to help individuals and families purchase health insurance were authorized for those doing so on both the federal exchange and state exchanges, not only those purchasing plans "established by the State", as the statute reads.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Supreme Court Upholds Obamacare Subsidies |author=Kimberly Leonard |website=US News & World Report |accessdate=November 25, 2015 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 16, 2016 |df= }}</ref>

Energy policy Edit

{{Main|Energy policy of the Obama administration}} Prior to June 2014, Obama offered substantial support for a broadly-based "All of the above" approach to domestic [[energy policy]], which Obama has maintained since his first term and which he last confirmed at his [[State of the Union]] speech in January 2014 to a mixed reception by both parties. In June 2014, Obama made indications that his administration would consider a shift towards an energy policy more closely tuned to the manufacturing industry and its impact on the domestic economy.<ref>{{cite news |author=James P. O'Toole |author2=Tracie Mauriello |author3=Deborah Todd |newspaper=Pittsburgh Post-Gazette |date=June 17, 2014 |title=Obama speaks in Pittsburgh about tech, jobs |url=}}</ref> Obama's approach of selectively combining regulation and incentive to various issues in the domestic energy policy, such as coal mining and oil fracking, has received mixed commentary for not being as responsive to the needs of the domestic manufacturing sector as needed, following claims that the domestic manufacturing sector utilizes as much as a third of the nation's available energy resources.<ref>Obama domestic energy policy. Bloomberg News. June 17, 2014.</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Manufacturing Balks at Obama's U.S. Energy Policy: Video |website = [[Bloomberg News]] |date = June 17, 2014 |accessdate = July 17, 2014 |deadurl = yes |archiveurl = |archivedate = August 4, 2014 |df = mdy-all }}</ref>

Gun control Edit

{{Main|Social policy of the Barack Obama administration#Gun policy}} [[File:Barack Obama visiting victims of 2012 Aurora shooting.jpg|thumb|Obama visits an [[2012 Aurora shooting|Aurora shooting]] victim at [[University of Colorado Hospital]], 2012]] On January 16, 2013, one month after the [[Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting]], Obama signed 23 executive orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding [[Gun politics in the United States|gun control]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |work = BBC News |title = US gun debate: Obama unveils gun control proposals |first = Mark |last = Mardell |date = January 16, 2013 |accessdate = January 16, 2013 }}</ref> He urged Congress to reintroduce an [[Federal Assault Weapons Ban|expired ban]] on military-style assault weapons, such as those used in several recent mass shootings, impose limits on ammunition magazines to 10 rounds, introduce background checks on all gun sales, pass a ban on possession and sale of armor-piercing bullets, introduce harsher penalties for gun-traffickers, especially unlicensed dealers who buy arms for criminals and approving the appointment of the head of the federal [[Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives]] for the first time since 2006.<ref>{{cite news |title = What's in Obama's Gun Control Proposal |url = |work = The New York Times |date = January 16, 2013 |accessdate = February 12, 2013 }}</ref> On January 5, 2016, Obama announced new executive actions extending background check requirements to more gun sellers.<ref>[ "Obama announces gun control executive action (full transcript)"] CNN. January 5, 2016. January 7, 2016.</ref> In a 2016 editorial in the ''New York Times'', Obama compared the struggle for what he termed "common-sense gun reform" to [[women's suffrage]] and other [[civil rights movements]] in American history.<ref>Obama, Barack. [ "Barack Obama: Guns Are Our Shared Responsibility"] ''The New York Times''. January 7, 2016. January 7, 2016.</ref>

2010 midterm elections Edit

{{Main|United States House of Representatives elections, 2010|United States Senate elections, 2010}} Obama called the [[2010 United States House of Representatives elections|November 2, 2010 election]], where the Democratic Party lost 63 seats in, and control of, the House of Representatives,<ref>{{cite news |author1=Paul Harris |author2=Ewen MacAskill |url = |title = US midterm election results herald new political era as Republicans take House |work = The Guardian |place = London |date = November 3, 2010 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 14, 2010 }}</ref> "humbling" and a "shellacking".<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama calls midterm elections a 'shellacking' for Democrats |work = The Christian Science Monitor |date = November 4, 2010 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = November 24, 2010 }}</ref> He said that the results came because not enough Americans had felt the effects of the economic recovery.<ref>{{cite web |website = All Things Considered |url = |title = See Obama's first paragraph of his transcript |publisher = NPR |date = November 3, 2010 |accessdate = December 22, 2010 }}</ref>

Cybersecurity and Internet policy Edit

On November 10, 2014, President Obama recommended the [[Federal Communications Commission]] reclassify [[Internet access|broadband Internet service]] as a telecommunications service in order to preserve [[net neutrality]].<ref name="NYT-20141110-EW">{{cite news |last = Wyatt |first = Edward |title = Obama Asks F.C.C. to Adopt Tough Net Neutrality Rules |url = |date = November 10, 2014 |work = [[The New York Times]] |accessdate = November 15, 2014 }}</ref><ref name="NYT-20141114">{{cite news |author = NYT Editorial Board |title = Why the F.C.C. Should Heed President Obama on Internet Regulation |url = |date = November 14, 2014 |work = [[The New York Times]] |accessdate = November 15, 2014 }}</ref> On February 12, 2013, President Obama signed {{Executive Order|13636}}, "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity."<ref>{{cite press release |title = Cybersecurity&nbsp;– Executive Order 13636 |url = |accessdate = April 30, 2015}}</ref>

Foreign policy Edit

{{Main|Foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration}} [[File:P06409PS-0571 (3594694537).jpg|June 4, 2009 − after his speech ''[[A New Beginning]]'' at [[Cairo University]], U.S. President Obama participates in an roundtable interview in 2009 with among others [[Jamal Khashoggi]], [[Bambang Harymurti]] and [[Nahum Barnea]].|thumb|right]] In February and March 2009, Vice President Joe Biden and [[United States Secretary of State|Secretary of State]] Hillary Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "[[Russian reset|reset]]" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration.<ref name="preceding administration" /> Obama attempted to reach out to Arab leaders by granting his first interview to an Arab satellite TV network, [[Al Arabiya]].<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama reaches out to Muslim world on TV |publisher = MSNBC |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2009 |date = January 27, 2009 }}</ref>

On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Barack Obama's address to Iran: Full text of Barack Obama's videotaped message to the people and leaders of Iran as they celebrate their New Year's holiday, Nowruz |date = March 20, 2013 |accessdate = July 14, 2013 |work = [[The Guardian]] |location = London }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |first = Karen |last = DeYoung |title = Nation U.S. to Join Talks on Iran's Nuclear Program |date = April 9, 2009 |work = The Washington Post |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2009 }}</ref> In April, Obama gave a speech in [[Ankara]], Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama speech draws praise in Mideast |work = The Guardian |location = London |url = |accessdate = June 15, 2009 |date = January 23, 2008 }}</ref> On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at [[Cairo University]] in Egypt calling for "[[A New Beginning]]" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.<ref name="middleeast" />

[[File:Barack Obama foreign trips.svg|thumb|left|[[List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama|International trips]] made by President Barack Obama during his terms in office]] [[File:Merkel an Obama Presidential Medal of Freedom.jpg|thumb|Obama with German Chancellor [[Angela Merkel]] in 2011]]

On June 26, 2009, Obama responded to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following [[2009 Iranian presidential election|Iran's 2009 presidential election]] by saying: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it."<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama dismisses Ahmadinejad apology request |work = The Washington Times |date = June 26, 2009 |accessdate = July 2, 2015 |first1 = Joseph |last1 = Weber |first2 = Stephen |last2 = Dinan }}</ref> While in Moscow on July 7, he responded to Vice President Biden's comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama: No green light for Israel to attack Iran |publisher = CNN |date = July 7, 2009 |accessdate = January 4, 2013 }}</ref>

On September 24, 2009, Obama became the first sitting U.S. President to [[President of the United Nations Security Council|preside]] over a meeting of the [[United Nations Security Council]].<ref>{{cite web |last = Rajghatta |first = Chidanand |date = September 24, 2009 |url = |title = Barack 'No Bomb' Obama pushes for world without nukes |website = [[The Times of India]] |accessdate = July 2, 2015}}</ref>

In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister [[Benjamin Netanyahu]] to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of [[East Jerusalem]].<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Israel Refuses to Halt Construction in East Jerusalem |publisher = [[Voice of America]] |date = March 25, 2010 |accessdate = July 2, 2015 |first = Robert |last = Berger }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Israel Confirms New Building in East Jerusalem |work = The New York Times |date = March 24, 2010 |first = Isabel |last = Kershner |accessdate = April 26, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 29, 2010 |deadurl = no }}</ref> During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President [[Dmitry Medvedev]] to replace the [[START I|1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty]] with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about one-third.<ref>Baker, Peter (March 26, 2010).[ "Obama Seals Arms Control Deal With Russia"]. ''The New York Times''.</ref> Obama and Medvedev signed the [[New START]] treaty in April 2010, and the [[United States Senate|U.S. Senate]] ratified it in December 2010.<ref>{{cite news |url = |work = The New York Times |first = Peter |last = Baker |title = Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty With Russia, 71–26 |date = December 22, 2010 }}</ref>

[[File:Barack Obama and Matteo Renzi October 2016, 1.jpg|thumb|Obama meets with Italian Prime Minister [[Matteo Renzi]] at the [[White House]], October 2016]]

In December 2011, Obama instructed agencies to consider [[LGBT rights by country or territory|LGBT rights]] when issuing financial aid to foreign countries.<ref>{{cite news |last = McVeigh |first = Karen |url = |title = Gay rights must be criterion for US aid allocations, instructs Obama |newspaper = The Guardian |location = London |date = December 6, 2011 |accessdate = January 4, 2013 }}</ref> In August 2013, he criticized Russia's law that discriminated against gays,<ref name="LAT80713">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama criticizes Russia's new anti-gay law in Leno interview |last = Parsons |first = Christi |date = August 7, 2013 |work = [[Los Angeles Times]] |accessdate = August 27, 2014 }}</ref> but he stopped short of advocating a boycott of the upcoming [[2014 Winter Olympics]] in [[Sochi]], Russia.<ref name="Huffpo80913">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Opposes Olympic Boycott, Criticizes Russian Anti-Gay Law |last = Johnson |first = Luke |date = August 9, 2013 |work = [[HuffPost]] |accessdate = August 27, 2014 }}</ref>

In December 2014, Obama announced that he intended to [[United States–Cuban Thaw|normalize relationships]] between [[Cuba–United States relations|Cuba and the United States]].<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = In Miami, a mixed and muted response to historic change in Cuba policy |website = The Washington Post |date = December 18, 2014 |accessdate = December 18, 2014 |author = Achenbach, Joel }}</ref> The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20, 2015.

In March 2015, Obama declared that he had authorized U.S. forces to provide logistical and intelligence support to the Saudis in their [[Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen|military intervention in Yemen]], establishing a "Joint Planning Cell" with Saudi Arabia.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title= Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen| website=The Washington Post|date=March 25, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Yemen conflict: US 'could be implicated in war crimes' |url= |work=BBC News |date=October 10, 2016}}</ref> In 2016, the Obama administration proposed a series of [[Saudi Arabia–United States relations|arms deals with Saudi Arabia]] worth $115 billion.<ref>{{Cite news | last=Bayoumy | first=Yara | title=Obama administration arms sales offers to Saudi top $115 billion:… | newspaper=Reuters | date=September 7, 2016 | url= }}</ref> Obama halted the sale of guided munition technology to [[Saudi Arabia]] after Saudi warplanes [[2016 Sana'a funeral airstrike|targeted a funeral]] in Yemen's capital Sanaa, killing more than 140 people.<ref>"[ America 'agrees to stop selling some arms' to Saudi Arabia]". ''The Independent.'' December 13, 2016.</ref>

Before leaving office, Obama said German Chancellor [[Angela Merkel]] had been his "closest international partner" throughout his tenure as president.<ref name="thelocal2016">{{cite web|url=|title=Obama: Merkel was my closest ally|date=November 15, 2016|website=The Local}}</ref>

War in Iraq Edit

{{Main|Iraq War|American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)}} On February 27, 2009, Obama announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of [[United States Marine Corps|Marines]] preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: by August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end."<ref>{{cite news |agency = [[Associated Press]] |first = Ben |last = Feller |url = |title = Obama sets firm withdrawal timetable for Iraq |work = [[The Gazette (Colorado Springs)|The Gazette]] |date = February 27, 2009 |accessdate = March 3, 2009}}</ref> The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troop's levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of about 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010, the last U.S. combat brigade exited Iraq. Remaining troops transitioned from combat operations to [[counter-terrorism]] and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces.<ref>{{cite web |last = Jones |first = Athena |date = February 27, 2009 |url = |title = Obama announces Iraq plan |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = July 2, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |author = Sykes, Hugh |url = |title = Last US combat brigade exits Iraq |work = BBC News |date = August 19, 2010 |accessdate = December 25, 2012 }}</ref> On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the United States combat mission in Iraq was over.<ref>{{cite news |url = |place = London |work = The Guardian |title = Barack Obama ends the war in Iraq. 'Now it's time to turn the page' |first = Ewen |last = MacAskill |date = September 1, 2010 }}</ref> On October 21, 2011 President Obama announced that all U.S. troops would leave Iraq in time to be "home for the holidays".<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = All U.S. troops out of Iraq by end of year |publisher = MSNBC |date = October 21, 2011 |accessdate = December 25, 2012 }}</ref>

[[File:David Cameron and Barack Obama at the G20 Summit in Toronto.jpg|thumb|Meeting with UK Prime Minister [[David Cameron]] during the [[2010 G20 Toronto summit]]|alt=US President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron trade bottles of beer to settle a bet they made on the U.S. vs. England World Cup Soccer game (which ended in a tie), during a bilateral meeting at the G20 Summit in Toronto, Canada, Saturday, June 26, 2010]]

In June 2014, following the [[Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)#Fall of Mosul and push into Kirkuk|capture of Mosul]] by [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|ISIS]], Obama sent 275 troops to provide support and security for U.S. personnel and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad. ISIS continued to gain ground and to commit [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant#Human rights abuse and war crime findings|widespread massacres and ethnic cleansing]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Is Sending 275 US Troops To Iraq |publisher = |accessdate = June 19, 2014 }}</ref><ref>{{Cite news |url = |title = New U.N. rights boss warns of 'house of blood' in Iraq, Syria |accessdate = July 11, 2015 |author = Nebehay, Stephanie |newspaper = Reuters |date = September 8, 2014 }}</ref>

In August 2014, during the [[Sinjar massacre]], Obama ordered a [[American-led intervention in Iraq (2014–present)#United States airstrikes|campaign of U.S. airstrikes against ISIS]].<ref name="def31-10-14">{{cite web |url = |title = DoD Authorizes War on Terror Award for Inherent Resolve Ops |date = October 31, 2014 |publisher = |accessdate = November 22, 2014 }}</ref>

By the end of 2014, 3,100 American ground troops were committed to the conflict<ref>{{Cite news |url = |title = Islamic State: Coalition 'pledges more troops' for Iraq |newspaper = BBC News |accessdate = August 23, 2015 |date = December 8, 2014 }}</ref> and 16,000 sorties were flown over the battlefield, primarily by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = A-10 Performing 11 Percent of Anti-ISIS Sorties |author = Aaron Mehta |date = January 19, 2015 |website = Defense News |accessdate = August 23, 2015 }}</ref>

In early 2015, with the addition of the "Panther Brigade" of the [[82nd Airborne Division]] the number of U.S. ground troops in Iraq surged to 4,400,<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = 1,000 soldiers from the 82nd Airborne headed to Iraq |website = Stars and Stripes |accessdate = August 23, 2015 }}</ref> and by July American-led coalition air forces counted 44,000 sorties over the battlefield.<ref>{{cite web|url= |title=Stealthy Jet Ensures Other War-Fighting Aircraft Survive |website=US News & World Report |accessdate=August 23, 2015 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=August 13, 2015 |df= }}</ref>

War in Afghanistan Edit

{{Main|War in Afghanistan (2001–present)}} Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan.<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite news |work = NewsHour with Jim Lehrer |url = |title = Obama Calls for U.S. Military to Renew Focus on Afghanistan |publisher = PBS |date = July 15, 2008 |accessdate = April 18, 2010 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 27, 2010 }}</ref> He announced an increase in U.S. troop levels to 17,000 military personnel in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires".<ref>{{cite news |first = Amanda |last = Hodge |title = Obama launches Afghanistan Surge |date = February 19, 2009 |work = The Australian |location = Sydney |url = }}</ref> He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General [[David D. McKiernan]], with former [[Special Forces (United States Army)|Special Forces]] commander Lt. Gen. [[Stanley A. McChrystal]] in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war.<ref name="counterinsurgency tactics" /> On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan and proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date;<ref>Associated Press. (December 1, 2009). [ "Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases"] MSNBC.</ref> this took place in July 2011. [[David Petraeus]] replaced McChrystal in June 2010, after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Gates says he agrees with Obama decision on McChrystal |publisher = CNN |date = June 24, 2010 |accessdate = September 18, 2010 }}</ref> In February 2013, Obama said the U.S. military would reduce the troop level in Afghanistan from 68,000 to 34,000 U.S. troops by February 2014.<ref>{{cite news |last = Chandrasekaran |first = Rajiv |title = Obama wants to cut troop level in Afghanistan in half over next year |url = |accessdate = February 14, 2013 |newspaper = The Washington Post |date = February 12, 2013 }}</ref>

In October 2015, the White House announced a plan to keep U.S. Forces in Afghanistan indefinitely in light of the deteriorating security situation.<ref>{{Cite news |url = |title = US troops in Afghanistan: Taliban resurgence sees rethink |newspaper = BBC News |date = October 15, 2015 |accessdate = October 15, 2015 |last = Marcus |first = Jonathan }}</ref>

Israel Edit

[[File:Barack Obama welcomes Shimon Peres in the Oval Office.jpg|thumb|Obama meeting with Israeli President [[Shimon Peres]] in the [[Oval Office]], May 2009|alt=President Barack Obama, at left, shakes hands with Israeli President Shimon Peres, at right, in the Oval Office on Tuesday, May 5, 2009. Standing at right looking on is U.S. Vice President Joe Biden.]]

In 2011, the United States vetoed a Security Council resolution condemning [[Israeli settlement]]s, with the United States being the only nation to do so.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = United States vetoes Security Council resolution on Israeli settlements |date = February 18, 2011 |website = UN News Service Section |accessdate = September 13, 2014 }}</ref> Obama supports the [[two-state solution]] to the [[Arab–Israeli conflict]] based on the 1967 borders with land swaps.<ref>Levy, Elior (May 22, 2011). [,7340,L-4072210,00.html "PA challenges Netanyahu to accept 1967 lines."] ''Ynetnews''. Retrieved May 22, 2011.</ref>

In June 2011, Obama said that the bond between the United States and Israel is "unbreakable".<ref>{{cite web |last = Johnston |first = Nicholas |url = |title = Obama Says U.S. Connection With Israel Is 'Unbreakable' |website = Bloomberg |date = June 20, 2011 |accessdate = October 26, 2012 |archiveurl=|archivedate=June 23, 2013}}</ref> During the initial years of the Obama administration, the U.S. increased military cooperation with Israel, including increased military aid, re-establishment of the [[Joint Political Military Group|U.S.-Israeli Joint Political Military Group]] and the Defense Policy Advisory Group, and an increase in visits among high-level military officials of both countries.<ref>Levinson, Charles (August 14, 2010).[ "U.S., Israel Build Military Cooperation"]. ''[[The Wall Street Journal]]'' (New York). Retrieved March 1, 2011.</ref> The Obama administration asked Congress to allocate money toward funding the [[Iron Dome]] program in response to the waves of [[Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel]].<ref>{{cite news |last=Kampeas |first=Ron |date=October 26, 2012 |url= |title=For Obama campaign, trying to put to rest persistent questions about 'kishkes' |newspaper=Jewish Journal}}</ref>

In 2013, [[Jeffrey Goldberg]] reported that, in Obama's view, "with each new settlement announcement, Netanyahu is moving his country down a path toward near-total isolation."<ref name="Bloomberg">{{cite news |last = Goldberg |first = Jeffrey |title = Obama: 'Israel Doesn't Know What Its Best Interests Are' |url = |accessdate = January 23, 2013 |work = Bloomberg |date = January 14, 2013 }}</ref> In 2014, Obama likened the [[Zionism|Zionist movement]] to the [[Civil Rights Movement]] in the United States. He said that both movements seek to bring justice and equal rights to historically persecuted peoples. He explained, "To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I've been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics."<ref>Goldberg, Jeffrey. [ "After the Iran Deal: Obama, Netanyahu, and the Future of the Jewish State."] ''The Atlantic''. September 13, 2015. September 13, 2015.</ref> Obama expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the [[2014 Israel–Gaza conflict]].<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama reaffirms Israel's right to defend itself |first=Herb|last=Keinon|url = |date = July 19, 2014 | work= [[The Times of Israel]] }}</ref> In 2015, Obama was harshly criticized by Israel for advocating and signing the [[Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action|Iran Nuclear Deal]]; Israeli Prime Minister [[Benjamin Netanyahu]], who had advocated the U.S. congress to oppose it, said the deal was "dangerous" and "bad".<ref>{{Cite news | title=Netanyahu: Iran nuclear deal makes world much more dangerous, Israel not bound by it | newspaper=Haaretz | date=July 14, 2015 | url= | access-date=January 3, 2018}}</ref>

On December 23, 2016, under the Obama Administration, the United States abstained from [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334]], which condemned [[Israeli settlement|Israeli settlement building]] in the occupied [[Palestinian territories]] as a violation of international law, effectively allowing it to pass.<ref>{{cite news | last1=Collinson | first1=Stephen | last2=Wright | first2=David | last3=Labott | first3=Elise | title=US Abstains as UN Demands End to Israeli Settlements | url= | date=December 24, 2016 | publisher=CNN | accessdate=January 7, 2017}}</ref> Netanyahu strongly criticized the Obama Administration's actions,<ref>{{Cite news | last1=Barak | first1=Ravid | title=Netanyahu on UN Settlement Vote: Israel Will Not Turn the Other Cheek | url= | date=December 26, 2016 | newspaper=Haaretz | accessdate=January 7, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news | title=Israel-Palestinians: Netanyahu Condemns John Kerry Speech | url= | date=December 29, 2016 | publisher=BBC | accessdate=January 7, 2017| newspaper=BBC News }}</ref> and the Israeli government withdrew its annual dues from the organization, which totaled $6 million, on January 6, 2017.<ref>{{cite web | title=Israel Halts $6&nbsp;million to UN to Protest UN Settlements Vote | url= | date=January 6, 2017 | publisher=[[Fox News]] (from the [[Associated Press]]) | accessdate=January 7, 2017}}</ref> On January 5, 2017, the [[United States House of Representatives]] voted 342–80 to condemn the UN Resolution.<ref>{{cite web | title=House Overwhelmingly Votes to Condemn UN Resolution on Israel Settlements | url= | date=January 5, 2017 | publisher=[[Fox News Channel]] | accessdate=January 7, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web | last1=Cortellessa | first1=Eric | title=US House Passes Motion Repudiating UN Resolution on Israel | url= | date=January 6, 2017 | website=[[The Times of Israel]] | accessdate=January 17, 2017}}</ref>

Libya Edit

{{Main|2011 military intervention in Libya}} [[File:Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama (2015-09-29) 04.jpg|thumb|President Obama meets with Russian President [[Vladimir Putin]] to discuss Syria and ISIS, September 29, 2015]]

In February 2011, protests in Libya began against long-time dictator [[Muammar Gaddafi]] as part of the [[Arab Spring]]. They soon turned violent. In March, as forces loyal to Gaddafi advanced on rebels across Libya, calls for a no-fly zone came from around the world, including Europe, the [[Arab League]], and a resolution<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Floor Statement by Senator McCain Introducing the Senate Resolution Calling for a No-Fly Zone in Libya |publisher = |date = March 14, 2011 |accessdate = March 28, 2011 }}</ref> passed unanimously by the U.S. Senate.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Senate Passes Resolution Calling for No-Fly Zone Over Libya |work = [[National Journal]] |date = March 1, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 11, 2011 }}</ref> In response to the unanimous passage of [[United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973]] on March 17, Gaddafi—who had previously vowed to "show no mercy" to the rebels of Benghazi<ref>{{cite news |last = Winnett |first = Robert |url = |title = Libya: UN approves no-fly zone as British troops prepare for action |work = The Daily Telegraph |place = London |date = March 17, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 28, 2011 }}</ref>—announced an immediate cessation of military activities,<ref>{{cite news |url = |author = Shackle, Samira |title = Libya declares ceasefire |work = New Statesman blog |location = London |date = March 18, 2011 |accessdate = July 16, 2011 }}</ref> yet reports came in that his forces continued shelling [[Misrata]]. The next day, on Obama's orders, the U.S. military took part in air strikes to destroy the Libyan government's air defense capabilities to protect civilians and enforce a no-fly-zone,<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama: US to Transfer Lead Role in Libya |publisher = RTT Newswire |accessdate = March 22, 2011 }}</ref> including the use of [[Tomahawk (missile)|Tomahawk missiles]], [[Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit|B-2 Spirits]], and fighter jets.<ref>{{cite news|url= |title=Obama says US efforts in Libya have saved lives, control of operation can be turned over soon |work=Ventura County Star |agency=Associated Press |accessdate=March 22, 2011 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=August 28, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |author = Pannell, Ian |url = |title = Gaddafi 'not targeted' by allied strikes |work = BBC News |date = March 21, 2011 |accessdate = July 3, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = June 23, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = F-15 fighter jet crashes in Libya |work = The Guardian |location = London |date = March 22, 2011 |accessdate = March 23, 2011 |first = Sam |last = Jones |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 22, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref> Six days later, on March 25, by unanimous vote of all of its 28 members, [[NATO]] took over leadership of the effort, dubbed [[Operation Unified Protector]].<ref name="NATOPressRelease">{{cite web |url = |title = NATO No-Fly Zone over Libya Operation UNIFIED PROTECTOR |publisher = NATO |date = March 25, 2011 }}</ref> Some Representatives<ref name="LibyaOffensive">{{cite news |url = |title = Is Obama's Libya offensive constitutional? |publisher = CBS News |date = March 22, 2011 |accessdate = March 22, 2011 |first = Brian |last = Montopoli }}</ref> questioned whether Obama had the constitutional authority to order military action in addition to questioning its cost, structure and aftermath.<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama's Libya Policy Makes Strange Bedfellows of Congressional Critics |url = |work = HuffPost |accessdate = March 26, 2011 |date = March 21, 2011 |first = Sam |last = Stein |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 23, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama juggles Libya promises, realities |url = |publisher = CNN |accessdate = March 26, 2011 |date = March 25, 2011 }}</ref>

Syrian Civil War Edit

{{See also|Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War#United States}} On August 18, 2011, several months after the start of the [[Syrian Civil War]], Obama issued a written statement that said: "The time has come for [[Bashar al-Assad|President Assad]] to step aside."<ref name=mustgo>{{cite news|title=Assad must go, Obama says|url= |accessdate=November 23, 2015|work=The Washington Post|date=August 18, 2011}}</ref><ref name=whstatem>[ "President Obama: 'The future of Syria must be determined by its people, but President Bashar al-Assad is standing in their way.{{'"}}] White House website, August 18, 2011.</ref> This stance was reaffirmed in November 2015.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama Says Syrian Leader Bashar al-Assad Must Go|author=Nelson, Colleen}}</ref> In 2012, Obama authorized multiple [[Timber Sycamore|programs run by the CIA]] and the Pentagon to train anti-Assad rebels.<ref>{{Cite news|url=|author=Hosenball, Mark|title=Obama authorizes secret support for Syrian rebels|accessdate=February 19, 2016|newspaper=Reuters|date=August 2, 2012}}</ref> The Pentagon-run program was later found to have failed and was formally abandoned in October 2015.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama Administration Ends Effort to Train Syrians to Combat ISIS|author1=Michael D. Shear |author2=Helene Cooper |author3=Eric Schmitt |accessdate=February 20, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=U.S. pulls plug on Syria rebel training effort; will focus on weapons supply|author1=Phil Stewart |author2=Kate Holton|accessdate=February 20, 2016|newspaper=Reuters|date=October 9, 2015}}</ref>

In the wake of a [[Ghouta chemical attack|chemical weapons attack]] in Syria, [[U.S. Government Assessment of the Syrian Government's Use of Chemical Weapons on August 21, 2013|formally blamed]] by the Obama administration on the Assad government, Obama chose not to enforce the "red line" he had pledged<ref name="redline">{{cite web|url=|title=Obama 'red line' erased as Bashar Assad's chemical weapons use goes unchecked by U.S. military|website=The Washington Times |date=May 17, 2015 |accessdate=November 23, 2015}}</ref> and, rather than authorize the promised military action against Assad, went along with the Russia-brokered deal that led to Assad [[Destruction of Syria's chemical weapons|giving up chemical weapons]]; however attacks with [[chlorine gas]] continued.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=U.S. and Russia Reach Deal to Destroy Syria's Chemical Arms|author=Gordon, Michael|accessdate=February 19, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Syria Got Rid of Its Chemical Weapons – But Reports of Attacks Continue|author=Boghani, Priyanka|accessdate=February 19, 2016}}</ref> In 2014, Obama authorized an [[Military intervention against ISIL|air campaign aimed primarily at ISIL]], but repeatedly promised that the U.S. would not deploy ground troops in Syria.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama outlines plan to target IS fighters|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=September 11, 2014|accessdate=September 24, 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=16 times Obama said there would be no boots on the ground in Syria|author=Gregory Korte|date=October 31, 2015}}</ref>

Death of Osama bin Laden Edit

{{Main|Death of Osama bin Laden}} [[File:President Obama on Death of Osama bin Laden.ogv|thumb|President Obama's address (9:28)<br /> ''Also available:'' [[:File:050111 Osama Bin Laden Death Statement audioonly.ogg|Audio only]]; {{Cws |title=Full text |link=Remarks by the President on Osama bin Laden |nobullet=yes}}]] [[File:Obama and Biden await updates on bin Laden.jpg|left|thumb|Obama and members of the national security team receive an update on [[Operation Neptune's Spear]] in the [[White House Situation Room]], May 1, 2011. See also: [[Situation Room (photograph)|''Situation Room'']]|alt=President Barack Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, along with members of the national security team, receive an update on Operation Neptune's Spear, a mission against Osama bin Laden, in one of the conference rooms of the Situation Room of the White House, on May 1, 2011. They are watching live feed from drones operating over the bin Laden complex.]]

Starting with information received from Central Intelligence Agency operatives in July 2010, the CIA developed intelligence over the next several months that determined what they believed to be the hideout of [[Osama bin Laden]]. He was living in seclusion in [[Osama bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad|a large compound]] in [[Abbottabad]], Pakistan, a suburban area {{convert|35|mi|km}} from [[Islamabad]].<ref name="NYT-clues">{{cite news |url = |title = Clues Gradually Led to the Location of Osama bin Laden |last = Mazzetti |first = Mark |author2 = Helene Cooper |author3 = Peter Baker |date = May 3, 2011 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = May 4, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 3, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref> CIA head [[Leon Panetta]] reported this intelligence to President Obama in March 2011.<ref name="NYT-clues" /> Meeting with his national security advisers over the course of the next six weeks, Obama rejected a plan to bomb the compound, and authorized a "surgical raid" to be conducted by [[United States Navy SEALs]].<ref name="NYT-clues" /> The operation took place on May 1, 2011, and resulted in the shooting death of bin Laden and the seizure of papers, computer drives and disks from the compound.<ref name="WP-binLaden">{{cite web |url = |title = Osama bin Laden is killed by U.S. forces in Pakistan |website = The Washington Post |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = May 2, 2011 |first1 = Philip |last1 = Rucker |first2 = Scott |last2 = Wilson |first3 = Anne E. |last3 = Kornblut }}</ref><ref name="ND-binLaden">{{cite web |url = |title = Official offers details of bin Laden raid |website = Newsday |accessdate = September 13, 2014 |date = May 2, 2011 }}</ref> DNA testing was one of five methods used to positively identify bin Laden's corpse,<ref name="ABC-binLaden">{{cite news |url = |title = Osama bin Laden Killed by U.S. Forces in Pakistan |last = Schabner |first = Dean |author2 = Karen Travers |date = May 1, 2011 |publisher = ABC News |accessdate = May 3, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 4, 2011 }}</ref> which was buried at sea several hours later.<ref name="NYT-ObamaAnnounce">{{cite news|url= |title=Bin Laden Is Dead, Obama Says |last=Baker |first=Peter |author2=Helene Cooper |author3=Mark Mazzetti |date=May 2, 2011 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=May 3, 2011 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 5, 2011 |deadurl=yes |df= }}</ref> Within minutes of the President's announcement from Washington, DC, late in the evening on May 1, there were spontaneous celebrations around the country as crowds gathered outside the White House, and at New York City's [[World Trade Center site|Ground Zero]] and [[Times Square]].<ref name="WP-binLaden" /><ref name="Guard-ObamaAnnounce">{{cite news |last = Walsh |first = Declan |author2 = Richard Adams |author3 = Ewen MacAskill |url = |title = Osama bin Laden is dead, Obama announces |date = May 2, 2011 |work = The Guardian |place = London |accessdate = May 3, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 3, 2011 |deadurl = no }}</ref> [[Reactions to the death of Osama bin Laden|Reaction to the announcement]] was positive across party lines, including from former presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.<ref name="Bloom-binLaden">{{cite news |url = |title = Death of Bin Laden May Strengthen Obama's Hand in Domestic, Foreign Policy |last = Dorning |first = Mike |date = May 2, 2011 |work = [[Bloomberg News]] |accessdate = May 4, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 3, 2011 }}</ref> {{clear}}

Iran nuclear talks Edit

{{Main|Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action}} [[File:Barack Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu (8637772147).jpg|thumb|Obama talks with Benjamin Netanyahu, March 2013]]

In November 2013, the Obama administration opened [[Negotiations leading to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action|negotiations]] with Iran to prevent it from acquiring [[nuclear weapon]]s, which included an [[Joint Plan of Action|interim agreement]]. Negotiations took two years with numerous delays, with a deal being announced July 14, 2015. The deal, titled the "[[Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action]]", saw the removal of sanctions in exchange for measures that would prevent Iran from producing nuclear weapons. While Obama hailed the agreement as being a step towards a more hopeful world, the deal drew strong criticism from Republican and conservative quarters, and from Israeli prime minister [[Benjamin Netanyahu]].<ref>{{Cite news |title = Iran deal reached, Obama hails step toward 'more hopeful world' |url = |date = July 14, 2015 |accessdate = July 14, 2015 |newspaper = Reuters }}</ref><ref>{{Cite news |title = Iran, World Powers Prepare to Sign Nuclear Accord |url = |date = July 14, 2015 |accessdate = July 14, 2015 |newspaper = Wall Street Journal |last1 = Solomon |first1 = Jay |last2 = Norman |first2 = Laurence |last3 = Lee |first3 = Carol E. }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title = Landmark deal reached on Iran nuclear program |url = |date = July 14, 2015 |accessdate = July 14, 2015 }}</ref> In addition, the transfer of $1.7 billion in cash to Iran shortly after the deal was announced was criticized by the republican party. The Obama administration said that the payment in cash was because of the "effectiveness of U.S. and international sanctions".<ref></ref> In order to advance the deal, the Obama administration shielded [[Hezbollah]] from the [[Drug Enforcement Administration]]'s [[Project Cassandra]] investigation regarding drug smuggling and from the [[Central Intelligence Agency]].<ref>[ Obama Administration Reportedly Shielded Hezbollah From DEA and CIA to Save Iran Nuclear Deal], Haaretz, December 18, 2017</ref><ref>[ "A Global Threat Emerges"], ''Politico'', December 18, 2017</ref>

Relations with Cuba Edit

{{Main|United States–Cuban Thaw}} [[File:Handshake between the President and Cuban President Raúl Castro.jpg|thumb|President Obama meeting with Cuban President [[Raúl Castro]] in Panama, April 2015]] Since the spring of 2013, secret meetings were conducted between the United States and Cuba in the neutral locations of Canada and [[Vatican City]].<ref>{{cite news |last1 = Warren |first1 = Strobel |title = Secret talks in Canada, Vatican City led to Cuba breakthrough |url = |agency = Reuters |accessdate = December 21, 2014 }}</ref> The Vatican first became involved in 2013 when [[Pope Francis]] advised the U.S. and Cuba to [[prisoner exchange|exchange prisoners]] as a gesture of goodwill.<ref>{{cite web |last1 = Morello |first1 = Carol |last2 = DeYoung |first2 = Karen |title = Secret U.S.-Cuba diplomacy ended in landmark deal on prisoners, future ties |url = |website = The Washington Post |accessdate = December 21, 2014 }}</ref> On December 10, 2013, Cuban President [[Raúl Castro]], in a significant public moment, greeted and shook hands with Obama at the [[Death of Nelson Mandela|Nelson Mandela memorial service]] in [[Johannesburg]].<ref>{{Cite news | last=Roberts | first=Dan | last2=Luscombe | first2=Richard | title=Obama shakes hands with Raúl Castro for first time at Mandela memorial | newspaper=The Guardian | date=December 10, 2013 | url= | accessdate=February 15, 2017}}</ref>

In December 2014, after the secret meetings, it was announced that Obama, with [[Pope Francis]] as an intermediary, had negotiated a restoration of relations with Cuba, after nearly sixty years of détente.<ref>{{cite news |first = Barbie Latza |last = Nadeau |url = |title = The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.–Cuba Cold War |work = The Daily Beast |date = December 17, 2014 |access-date = December 18, 2014 }}</ref> Popularly dubbed the [[Cuban Thaw]], ''[[The New Republic]]'' deemed the Cuban Thaw to be "Obama's finest foreign policy achievement."<ref>''[[The New Republic]]'', [ The Cuban Thaw Is Obama's Finest Foreign Policy Achievement to Date], by Joel Gillin, April 13, 2015.</ref> On July 1, 2015, President Barack Obama announced that formal diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States would resume, and embassies would be opened in Washington and [[Havana]].<ref>{{cite news |title = Obama announces re-establishment of U.S.-Cuba diplomatic ties |url = |publisher = CNN |accessdate = July 1, 2015 }}</ref> The countries' respective "interests sections" in one another's capitals were upgraded to embassies on July 20 and August 13, 2015, respectively.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = United States and Cuba reestablish diplomatic relations |first = Mimi |last = Whitefield |work = The Miami Herald |date = July 20, 2015 |accessdate = July 19, 2015 }}</ref>

Obama visited Havana, Cuba for two days in March 2016, becoming the first sitting U.S. President to arrive since [[Calvin Coolidge]] in 1928.<ref>{{cite news |author1=Julie Hirschfeld Davis |author2=Damien Cave |date = March 21, 2016 |title = Obama Arrives in Cuba, Heralding New Era After Decades of Hostility |work = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = }}</ref>

Africa Edit

Obama spoke in front of the [[African Union]] in [[Addis Ababa]], Ethiopia, on July 29, 2015, the first sitting U.S. president to do so. He gave a speech encouraging the world to increase economic ties via investments and trade with the continent, and lauded the progress made in [[Education in Africa|education]], infrastructure, and [[Economy of Africa|economy]]. He also criticized the lack of democracy and leaders who refuse to step aside, discrimination against minorities ([[LGBT]] people, religious groups and ethnicities), and corruption. He suggested an intensified [[democratization]] and free trade, to significantly improve the quality of life for Africans.<ref>{{Cite news |last1 = Lee |first1 = Carol E. |title = Obama Becomes First U.S. President to Address African Union |url = |newspaper = Wall Street Journal |accessdate = July 29, 2015 |date = July 28, 2015 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title = Remarks by President Obama to the People of Africa |url = |publisher = The White House |accessdate = July 29, 2015 |date = July 28, 2015 }}</ref> During his July 2015 trip, Obama also was the first U.S. president ever to [[United States presidential visits to Sub-Saharan Africa|visit]] Kenya, which is the homeland of his father.<ref>{{cite web |last1 = Ferris |first1 = Sarah |title = Obama: Proud to be first U.S. president to visit Kenya |url = |website = [[The Hill (newspaper)|The Hill]] |accessdate = July 30, 2015 |date = July 25, 2015 }}</ref>

Hiroshima speech Edit

On May 27, 2016, Obama became the first sitting American president to visit [[Hiroshima]], Japan, 71 years after the [[Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki|U.S. atomic bombing of Hiroshima]] that ended [[World War II]]. Accompanied by Japanese Prime Minister [[Shinzō Abe]], Obama paid tribute to the victims of the bombing at the [[Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum]].<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=President Obama visits Hiroshima|work=BBC News|access-date=June 19, 2016}}</ref>

Russia Edit

{{See also|Russia–United States relations#Obama's tenure (2009–17)}} [[File:Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama (2015-09-29) 01.jpg|thumb|Obama meets Russian President [[Vladimir Putin]] in September 2015.]]

After [[Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation|Russia's invasion of Crimea]] in 2014, [[Russian military intervention in Syria|military intervention]] in Syria in 2015, and the [[2016 United States election interference by Russia|interference]] in the [[2016 United States presidential election|2016 U.S. presidential election]],<ref name="ftelect">{{cite news| url= | newspaper=Financial Times| title=US election: The Russia factor: Officials say Moscow's interference is unprecedented. Has the Kremlin achieved its goal? | date=November 4, 2016}}</ref> Obama's Russia policy was widely seen as a failure.<ref name="friedmnyt">{{cite news|first= Thomas L. |last=Friedman|url=| newspaper=The New York Times| title=Let's Get Putin's Attention | date=October 5, 2016}}</ref> [[George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen|George Robertson]], a former UK defense secretary and NATO secretary-general, said that Obama had "allowed Putin to jump back on the world stage and test the resolve of the West", adding that the legacy of this disaster would last.<ref name="obexit">{{cite news| url= | newspaper=The New York Times| title=Europeans View Obama's Exit With a Mix of Admiration and Regret | date=November 6, 2016}}</ref>

Cultural and political image Edit

{{Main|Public image of Barack Obama}} {{See also|International reaction to the United States presidential election, 2008|International reactions to the United States presidential election, 2012}} Obama's family history, upbringing, and [[Ivy League]] education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the [[civil rights movement]].<ref>{{cite news|last=Wallace-Wells |first=Benjamin |title=The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama? |date=November 2004 |work=Washington Monthly |url= |accessdate=April 7, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 13, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }} See also: {{cite news|first=Janny |last=Scott |title=A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line |date=December 28, 2007 |url= |work=International Herald Tribune |accessdate=April 7, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 17, 2008 }}</ref> Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the [[National Association of Black Journalists]] that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."<ref>{{cite news |first = Les |last = Payne |title = In One Country, a Dual Audience |format = paid archive |date = August 19, 2007 |url = |work = Newsday |place = New York |accessdate = April 7, 2008 }}</ref> Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."<ref>{{cite news |first = Mike |last = Dorning |title = Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK |format = paid archive |date = October 4, 2007 |url = |work = Chicago Tribune |accessdate = April 7, 2008 }} See also: {{cite news |first = Toby |last = Harnden |title = Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide |date = October 15, 2007 |url = |work = The Daily Telegraph |place = London |accessdate = April 7, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 15, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator.<ref name="exceptional orator" /> During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = YouTube&nbsp;– ChangeDotGov's Channel |publisher = YouTube |accessdate = April 18, 2010 |archiveurl =|archivedate=February 20, 2010 }}</ref> In his speeches as president, Obama did not make more overt references to race relations than his predecessors,<ref>Dyson, Michael Eric. (2016). The Black Presidency: Barack Obama and the Politics of Race in America. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 275. {{ISBN|978-0544387669}}.</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Governing with Words|last=Gillion|first=Daniel Q.|date=2016|website=Cambridge Core|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-06-05}}</ref> but according to one study, he implemented stronger policy action on behalf of African-Americans than any president since the Nixon era.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Butler|first=Bennett|last2=Mendelberg|first2=Tali|last3=Haines|first3=Pavielle E.|date=2019|title="I'm Not the President of Black America": Rhetorical versus Policy Representation|url=|journal=Perspectives on Politics|language=en|volume=|pages=1–21|doi=10.1017/S1537592719000963|issn=1537-5927|via=}}</ref>

[[File:Gallup Poll-Approval Rating-Barack Obama.svg|thumb|left|Presidential approval ratings]]

According to the [[Gallup Organization]], Obama began his presidency with a 68% approval rating<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Obama Starts With 68% Job Approval |publisher = |date = January 24, 2009 |accessdate = June 19, 2011 |archiveurl = |archivedate = June 16, 2011 }}</ref> before gradually declining for the rest of the year, and eventually bottoming out at 41% in August 2010,<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama hits low point in Gallup Poll&nbsp;– 41% |work = USA Today |date = April 15, 2011 |accessdate = June 19, 2011 }}</ref> a trend similar to [[Ronald Reagan]]'s and [[Bill Clinton]]'s first years in office.<ref>{{cite web |author = Jon Terbush |url = |title = Approval By Numbers: How Obama Compares To Past Presidents |publisher = |date = December 9, 2010 |accessdate = June 19, 2011 }}</ref> He experienced a small poll bounce shortly after the [[death of Osama bin Laden]] on May 2, 2011. This bounce lasted until around June 2011, when his approval numbers dropped back to where they were previously.<ref>{{cite news |last = Oliphant |first = James |date = May 11, 2011 |url = |title = Bin Laden bounce? New poll shows jump in Obama approval |work = [[Los Angeles Times]] |accessdate = June 7, 2011 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1 = Balz |first1 = Dan |last2 = Cohen |first2 = John |date = June 6, 2011 |url = |title = Obama loses bin Laden bounce; Romney on the move among GOP contenders |website = The Washington Post |publisher = Nash Holdings LLC |accessdate = June 7, 2011 }}</ref> His approval ratings rebounded around the same time as his reelection in 2012, with polls showing an average job approval of 52% shortly after his second inauguration.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Presidential Job Approval Center |publisher = |accessdate = June 23, 2015 }}</ref> Despite approval ratings dropping to 39% in late-2013 due to the ACA roll-out, they climbed to 50% in January 2015 according to Gallup.<ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval |date = January 22, 2015 |accessdate = March 23, 2015 |website = Gallup Polling }}</ref>

Polls showed strong support for Obama in other countries both before and during his presidency.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = World wants Obama as president: poll |agency = Reuters |date = September 9, 2008 |publisher = ABC News }}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Wike|first1=Richard|last2=Poushter|first2=Jacob|last3=Zainulbhai|first3=Hani|title=As Obama Years Draw to Close, President and U.S. Seen Favorably in Europe and Asia|url=|website=Global Attitudes & Trends|publisher=Pew Research Center|accessdate=February 23, 2017|date=June 29, 2016}}</ref> In a February 2009 poll conducted in Western Europe and the U.S. by [[Harris Insights & Analytics|Harris Interactive]] for [[France 24]] and the ''[[International Herald Tribune]]'', Obama was rated as the most respected world leader, as well as the most powerful.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Poll shows Obama atop list of most respected |last = Freed |first = John C. |date = February 6, 2009 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = January 22, 2012 }}</ref> In a similar poll conducted by Harris in May 2009, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Most Popular Leader, Poll Finds |date = May 29, 2009 |work = The New York Times |accessdate = January 22, 2012 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title = Obama remains a popular symbol of hope |url = |date = June 2, 2009 |publisher = [[France 24]] |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 13, 2011 |accessdate = January 22, 2012 }}</ref>

[[File:G8 leaders watching football.jpg|thumb|G8 leaders watching the [[2012 UEFA Champions League Final]]|alt=Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom, President Barack Obama, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission, President François Hollande of France and others react emotionally while watching the overtime shootout of the Chelsea vs. Bayern Munich [[2012 UEFA Champions League Final|Champions League final]], in the Laurel Cabin conference room during the G8 Summit at Camp David, Maryland, May 19, 2012. Cameron raises his arms triumphantly as the Chelsea team wins their first Champions League title in the overtime shootout.]]

Obama won [[Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album|Best Spoken Word Album]] [[Grammy Award]]s for abridged [[audiobook]] versions of ''[[Dreams from My Father]]'' in February 2006 and for ''[[The Audacity of Hope]]'' in February 2008.<ref>{{cite news |author = Goodman, Dean |date = February 10, 2008 |title = Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama |agency = Reuters |url = |accessdate = November 24, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 19, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> His [[Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008#New Hampshire|concession speech]] after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "[[Yes We Can ( song)|Yes We Can]]", which was viewed 10&nbsp;million times on YouTube in its first month<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Celebrities join YouTube revolution |last = Strange |first = Hannah |date = March 5, 2008 |work = The Times |place = London |accessdate = December 18, 2008 }} {{subscription required}}</ref> and received a [[Daytime Emmy Award]].<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Emmys give knuckle bump to; more videos on the way |last = Wappler |first = Margaret |date = June 20, 2008 |work = Los Angeles Times blogs |accessdate = January 26, 2012 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 16, 2011 }}</ref> In December 2008 and in 2012, ''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]'' magazine named Obama as its [[Time Person of the Year|Person of the Year]].<ref>{{Cite journal |last = Scherer |first = Michael |url = |title = 2012 Person of the Year: Barack Obama, the President |journal = Time |date = December 19, 2012 |accessdate = December 19, 2012 }}</ref> The 2008 awarding was for his historic candidacy and election, which ''Time'' described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".<ref>{{cite news|last=Von Drehle |first=David |title=Why History Can't Wait |url=,31682,1861543_1865068,00.html |work=Time |date=December 16, 2008 |accessdate=December 17, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 17, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}</ref> On May 25, 2011, Obama became the first President of the United States to address both houses of the [[Parliament of the United Kingdom|UK Parliament]] in [[Westminster Hall]], London. This was only the fifth occurrence since the start of the 20th century of a head of state being extended this invitation, following [[Charles de Gaulle]] in 1960, [[Nelson Mandela]] in 1996, [[Elizabeth II|Queen Elizabeth II]] in 2002 and [[Pope Benedict XVI]] in 2010.<ref>{{cite web |author = Barack Obama |url = |title = Full transcript – Speech to UK Parliament |website = New Statesman |date = May 25, 2011 |accessdate = June 14, 2014 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = 20th century to the present day |publisher = Parliament of the United Kingdom |date = April 21, 2010 |accessdate = June 14, 2014 }}</ref>

On October 9, 2009, the [[Norwegian Nobel Committee]] announced that Obama had won the [[2009 Nobel Peace Prize]] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples".<!--See [[WP:EGG]] before attempting to hide this link!--><ref name="nobel peace prize">{{cite web |url = |title = The Nobel Peace Prize 2009 |publisher = Nobel Foundation |accessdate = October 9, 2009 |archiveurl = |archivedate = October 10, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref> Obama accepted this award in [[Oslo]], Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility."<ref name="CNN: Obama acceptance transcript">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama: 'Peace requires responsibility' |publisher = CNN |date = December 10, 2009 |accessdate = May 21, 2011 }}</ref> The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures.<ref>{{cite news |last = Philp |first = Catherine |title = Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight |place = London |work = The Times |date = October 10, 2009 |url = |accessdate = October 10, 2009 }}{{subscription required}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news |first = Sharon|last= Otterman |title = World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise |newspaper = The New York Times |date = October 9, 2009 |url = |accessdate = October 9, 2009 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama Peace Prize win has Americans asking why? |agency = Reuters |accessdate = October 9, 2009 |date = October 9, 2009 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url = |title = Obama: Nobel Peace Prize 'a call to action'&nbsp;– Politics&nbsp;– White House |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = September 13, 2014 }}</ref> Obama's peace prize was called a "stunning surprise" by ''[[The New York Times]]''.<ref>{{cite news |url = |work = The New York Times |title = Surprise Nobel for Obama Stirs Praise and Doubts |author = Steven Erlanger |date = October 10, 2009 |accessdate = May 20, 2010 }}</ref> Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.<ref>{{cite news |url = |title = Obama's win unique among presidents |publisher = CNN |date = October 9, 2009 }}</ref> Obama's Nobel Prize has been viewed skeptically in subsequent years, especially after the director of the Nobel Institute, [[Geir Lundestad]], said Obama's Peace Prize did not have the desired effect.<ref>{{cite web |last1 = Taylor |first1 = Adam |title = Obama's Nobel peace prize didn't have the desired effect, former Nobel official reveals |url = |website = The Washington Post |accessdate = February 4, 2016 }}</ref>

Post-presidency (2017–present) Edit

[[File:58th Presidential Inaugural Ceremony 170120-D-BP749-1327.jpg|thumb|Obama, with [[Joe Biden]] and [[Donald Trump]] at the latter's [[Inauguration of Donald Trump|inauguration]] on January 20, 2017]] Barack Obama's presidency ended at noon on January 20, 2017, immediately following the [[Inauguration of Donald Trump|inauguration]] of his Republican successor, [[Donald Trump]]. After the inauguration, Obama lifted off on [[Executive One]], circled the White House, and flew to [[Joint Base Andrews]].<ref>{{cite news|last=Korte|first=Gregory|url=|title=Inside Barack Obama's final hours in the White House|work=USA Today|date=January 20, 2017}}</ref> The family currently rents a house in [[Kalorama, Washington, D.C.]]<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Peek inside Obama's post-presidential pad|last=Kosinski|first=Michelle |author2=Daniella Diaz |date=May 27, 2016|publisher=CNN|accessdate=January 22, 2017}}</ref>

A 2018 survey of historians by the [[American Political Science Association]] ranked Obama the 8th-greatest American President.<ref name="How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best — and Worst — Presidents?">{{cite news|url=|title=How Does Trump Stack Up Against the Best — and Worst — Presidents?|work=[[The New York Times]]|author1= Rottinghaus, Brandon| author2=Justin S. Vaughn|date=February 19, 2018|accessdate=February 19, 2018}}</ref> Obama gained 10 spots from the same survey in 2015 from the [[Brookings Institution]] that ranked Obama the 18th-greatest American President.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Measuring Obama against the great presidents|author1= Rottinghaus, Brandon| author2=Justin S. Vaughn|date=February 13, 2015|publisher=Brookings}}</ref>

On March 2, 2017, the [[John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum]] awarded the annual [[Profile in Courage Award]] to Obama "for his enduring commitment to democratic ideals and elevating the standard of political courage."<ref>{{cite web|title=Former President Barack H. Obama Announced as Recipient of 2017 John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award|url=|website=John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum|publisher=John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum|accessdate=April 8, 2017|archiveurl=|archivedate=April 8, 2017|date=March 2, 2017}}</ref> In his first public appearance out of office, Obama appeared at a seminar at the [[University of Chicago]] on April 24. The seminar was aimed at the engagement with a new generation as well as an appeal for their participation in politics.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama Steps Back into Public Life, Trying to Avoid One Word: Trump|date=April 24, 2017|work=The New York Times|first=Michael D.|last=Shear}}</ref> On May 4, three days ahead of the [[2017 French presidential election|French presidential election]], Obama publicly endorsed [[Emmanuel Macron]]: "He appeals to people's hopes and not their fears, and I enjoyed speaking to Emmanuel recently to hear about his independent movement and his vision for the future of France."<ref>{{cite news|url=|title= Obama endorses Macron in French election|date=May 4, 2017|publisher=Politico}}</ref> Macron went on to win the election.

While in [[Berlin]] on May 25, Obama made a joint public appearance with Chancellor [[Angela Merkel]] where he stressed inclusion and for leaders to question themselves, Obama having been formally invited to Berlin while still in office as part of an effort to boost Merkel's re-election campaign.<ref>{{cite news|url= |title=Obama in Berlin: 'We can't hide behind a wall'|first=Edward-Isaac|last=Dovere|publisher=Politico|date=May 25, 2017}}</ref> Obama traveled to [[Kensington Palace]] in England and met with [[Prince Harry]] on May 27, 2017; Obama tweeted afterward that the two discussed their foundations and offering condolences in the wake of the [[2017 Manchester Arena bombing|Manchester Arena bombing]] that occurred five days prior.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama visits Prince Harry at Kensington Palace|first=Brooke|last=Seipel|date=May 27, 2017|newspaper=The Hill}}</ref>

Barack and Michelle Obama signed a deal on May 22 to produce docu-series, documentaries and features for [[Netflix]] under the Obama's newly formed production company, Higher Ground Productions. On the deal, Michelle said "I have always believed in the power of storytelling to inspire us, to make us think differently about the world around us, and to help us open our minds and hearts to others".<ref>{{cite web |title=Obamas Sign Deal With Netflix, Form 'Higher Ground Productions' |url= | |accessdate=September 17, 2018 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Harris |first1=Hunter |title=The Obamas Will Produce Movies and Shows for Netflix |url= |website=Vulture |accessdate=September 17, 2018 |language=en|date=May 21, 2018 }}</ref>

After President Trump announced his withdrawal of the United States from the [[Paris Agreement]] on June 1, Obama released a statement disagreeing with the choice: "But even in the absence of American leadership; even as this administration joins a small handful of nations that reject the future; I'm confident that our states, cities, and businesses will step up and do even more to lead the way, and help protect for future generations the one planet we've got."<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama pans Trump withdrawal from climate deal|first=MJ|last=Lee|date=June 1, 2017|publisher=CNN}}</ref>

[[File:Obama Macri October 2017.jpg|thumb|Obama playing golf with the President of Argentina [[Mauricio Macri]], October 2017]] After Senate Republicans revealed the [[Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017]], their discussion draft of a health care bill to replace the Affordable Care Act, on June 22, Obama released a Facebook post calling the bill "a massive transfer of wealth from middle-class and poor families to the richest people in America."<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama slams 'fundamental meanness' of Senate healthcare bill|date=June 22, 2017|first=Max|last=Greenwood|newspaper=The Hill}}</ref> On September 19, while delivering the keynote address at Goalkeepers, Obama admitted his frustration with Republicans backing "a bill that will raise costs, reduce coverage, and roll back protections for older Americans and people with pre-existing conditions".<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Barack Obama Criticizes '50th or 60th' Attempt to Repeal the Affordable Care Act|date=September 20, 2017|first=Alana|last=Abramson|work=Time}}</ref>

After Attorney General [[Jeff Sessions]] announced the termination of the [[Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals]] (DACA) program on September 5, Obama released a Facebook post rebuking the decision.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama slams Trump for rescinding DACA, calls move 'cruel'|first=Kevin|last=Liptak|publisher=CNN|date=September 5, 2017}}</ref> Two days later, he partnered with former presidents [[Jimmy Carter]], [[George H. W. Bush]], [[Bill Clinton]], and [[George W. Bush]] to work with [[One America Appeal]] to help the victims of [[Hurricane Harvey]] and [[Hurricane Irma]] in the [[Gulf Coast of the United States|Gulf Coast]] and [[Texas]] communities.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Former presidents fundraise for Irma disaster relief|last=Shelbourne|first=Mallory|date=September 10, 2017|work=The Hill|accessdate=September 11, 2017}}</ref>

Obama hosted the inaugural summit of the [[Obama Foundation]] in Chicago on October 31. Obama intends for the foundation to be the central focus of his post-presidency and part of his ambitions for his subsequent activities following his presidency to be more consequential than his time in office.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama, opening his foundation's first summit, calls for fixing civic culture|publisher=Politico|date=October 31, 2017}}</ref> Obama has also been working on a Presidential memoir, in a reported $65 million deal with [[Penguin Random House]].<ref name="nymag">{{cite magazine |url= |title=Where Is Barack Obama? |first=Gabriel |last=Debenedetti |magazine=[[New York (magazine)|New York]] |date=June 24, 2018}}</ref>

Obama went on an international trip from November 28 to December 2, 2017, and visited China, India and France. In China, he delivered remarks at the Global Alliance of SMEs Summit in Shanghai and met with Chinese President [[Xi Jinping]] in Beijing.<ref>{{Cite news|last1=Haas|first1=Benjamin|title=Obama and Xi: all smiles as 'veteran cadres' reunite in Beijing|url=|newspaper=The Guardian|accessdate= December 3, 2017|date=December 1, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Zheng|first1=Sarah|title=Obama to meet Xi in Beijing during three-day Asia trip|url=|website=South China Morning Post|accessdate=December 3, 2017|language=en|date=November 29, 2017}}</ref> He then went to India, where he spoke at the Hindustan Times Leadership Summit before meeting with Indian Prime Minister [[Narendra Modi]] over lunch. In addition, he held a town hall for young leaders, organized by the Obama Foundation.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Nandy|first1=Sumana|title=In New Delhi, Barack Obama's Message To Future Leaders: Highlights|url=||accessdate=December 3, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Barack Obama to PM Narendra Modi: 'India should not be split on sectarian lines'|url=|website=The Indian Express|accessdate=December 3, 2017|date=December 2, 2017}}</ref> He also met with the [[Dalai Lama]] while in New Delhi.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Carter|first1=Brandon|title=Obama meets with Dalai Lama during trip abroad|url=|website=TheHill|accessdate=December 3, 2017|date= December 1, 2017}}</ref> He ended his five-day trip in France where he met with French President [[Emmanuel Macron]], former President [[Francois Hollande]] and Paris Mayor [[Anne Hidalgo]] and then spoke at an invitation-only event, touching on climate issues.<ref>{{Cite news|title=Obama laments lack of U.S. climate leadership in Paris|url=|newspaper=Reuters|accessdate=December 3, 2017|date=2017}}</ref>

Obama endorsed Oregon Governor [[Kate Brown]] for re-election on October 1, 2018.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Herron |first1=Elise |title=Barack Obama Endorses Oregon Gov. Kate Brown For Re-Election |url= |accessdate=October 17, 2018 |newspaper=Willamette Week |date=October 1, 2018}}</ref> On October 22, Obama traveled to Las Vegas to speak at a campaign rally to discuss economic growth, campaigning for Nevada Democratic candidates.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama rallies in Las Vegas, tells crowd to "remember who started" economic growth|date=October 22, 2018|publisher=CBS News|accessdate=October 23, 2018}}</ref>

A package that contained a [[October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts|pipe bomb]] was sent to Obama's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. The package was intercepted by the Secret Service during routine mail screenings. Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders, mostly those who voiced strong objections to the policies of [[Donald Trump]] and to [[CNN]]. [[Debbie Wasserman Schultz]] was addressed as the sender of the package. On October 26, 2018, [[Cesar Sayoc]] was arrested and faces five federal charges in Manhattan carrying a combined maximum sentence of 48 years behind bars in relation to the pipe bombs.<ref>{{cite news |last1=Kennedy |first1=Merrit |title=Apparent 'Pipe Bombs' Mailed To Clinton, Obama And CNN |url= |accessdate=October 25, 2018 |work=NPR |date=October 24, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title="Potentially destructive devices" sent to Clinton, Obama, CNN prompt massive response |url= |accessdate=October 25, 2018 |work=CBS News |date=October 24, 2018}}</ref>

Legacy Edit

[[File:Job Growth by U.S. President - v1.png|thumb|right|upright=1.7|Job growth during the presidency of Obama compared to predecessors, as measured as cumulative percentage change from month after inauguration to end of his term]]

Obama's most significant legacy is generally considered to be the [[Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act]] (PPACA), provisions of which went into effect from 2010 to 2020. Many attempts by Senate Republicans to repeal the PPACA, including a "skinny repeal", have thus far failed.<ref name="legacy">{{cite news|url=|title=Obama Legacy Will Be Recovery from Recession, Affordable Care Act|date=January 20, 2017|publisher=ABC News|accessdate=March 15, 2017}}</ref> Together with the [[Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act]] amendment, it represents the [[Health care in the United States|U.S. healthcare system]]'s most significant regulatory overhaul and expansion of coverage since the passage of [[Medicare (United States)|Medicare]] and [[Medicaid]] in 1965.<ref name="Oberlander2010">{{cite journal|last1=Oberlander|first1=Jonathan|title=Long Time Coming: Why Health Reform Finally Passed|journal=Health Affairs|date=June 1, 2010|volume=29|issue=6|pages=1112–1116|doi=10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0447|pmid=20530339|url=|language=en|issn=0278-2715|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=|archivedate=December 5, 2016}}</ref><ref name="Blumenthal2015">{{cite journal |last1=Blumenthal|first1=David|last2=Abrams|first2=Melinda|last3=Nuzum|first3=Rachel|title=The Affordable Care Act at 5 Years |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |date=June 18, 2015 | volume=372 |issue=25 |pages=2451–2458|doi=10.1056/NEJMhpr1503614|pmid=25946142| issn=0028-4793}}</ref><ref name="CohenEtAl">{{cite book|last1=Cohen|first1=Alan B.|last2=Colby|first2=David C.|last3=Wailoo|first3=Keith A.|last4=Zelizer|first4=Julian E. | title=Medicare and Medicaid at 50: America's Entitlement Programs in the Age of Affordable Care|date=June 1, 2015|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0190231569|url= |language=en}}</ref><ref name="NYTsigning">{{cite news|last1=Stolberg|first1=Sheryl Gay|last2=Pear|first2=Robert | title=Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul into Law|url=| work=The New York Times|date=March 23, 2010}}</ref>

Many commentators credit Obama with averting a threatened [[Depression (economics)|depression]] and pulling the economy back from the [[Great Recession]].<ref name="legacy" /> According to the [[U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics]], the [[Obama administration]] created 11.3 million jobs from the month after [[first inauguration of Barack Obama|his first inauguration]] to the end of his term.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Long|first1=Heather|title=Final tally: Obama created 11.3 million jobs|url=| publisher=CNN|date=January 6, 2017}}</ref> In 2010, Obama signed into effect the [[Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act]]. Passed as a response to the [[financial crisis of 2007–08]], it brought the most significant changes to [[financial regulation]] in the United States since the regulatory reform that followed the [[Great Depression]] under Democratic President [[Franklin D. Roosevelt]].<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Barack Obama's Legacy: Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform|publisher=CBS News|accessdate=March 15, 2017}}</ref>

In 2009, Obama signed into law the [[National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010]], which contained in it the [[Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act]], the first addition to existing federal hate crime law in the United States since Democratic President [[Bill Clinton]] signed into law the Church Arson Prevention Act of 1996. The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act expanded [[Hate crime laws in the United States|existing federal hate crime laws in the United States]] to apply to crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, and dropped the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity.

As president, Obama advanced LGBT rights.<ref>Crary, David (January 4, 2017), [ "LGBT activists view Obama as staunch champion of their cause"], Associated Press.</ref> In 2010, he signed the [[Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010|Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act]], which brought an end to "[[don't ask, don't tell]]" policy in the U.S. armed forces that banned open service from [[Lesbian, gay and bisexual|LGB]] people; the law went into effect the following year.<ref>Bumiller, Elisabeth (July 22, 2011), [ Obama Ends 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' Policy], ''The New York Times''.</ref> In 2016, his administration brought an end to the ban on [[transgender]] people serving openly in the U.S. armed forces.<ref>{{cite news|title=Pentagon Says Transgender Troops Can Now Serve Openly|url=|date=June 30, 2016|author=Merrit Kennedy|publisher=NPR}}</ref><ref name=TransBan1 /> A [[Gallup poll]], taken in the final days of Obama's term, showed that 68% of Americans believed that the U.S. had made progress in the situation for gays and lesbians during Obama's eight years in office.<ref>Michael Smith & Frank Newport, [ Americans Assess Progress Under Obama], The Gallup Organization (January 9, 2017).</ref>

Obama substantially escalated the use of [[drone strikes]] against suspected militants and terrorists associated with [[al-Qaeda]] and the [[Taliban]].<ref>{{cite news |last=Zenko|first=Micah |date=January 12, 2016 |title= Obama's Embrace of Drone Strikes Will Be a Lasting Legacy|url=|work=[[The New York Times]] |access-date= March 2, 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Targeted Killings|website=Council on Foreign Relations}}</ref> In 2016, the last year of his presidency, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on seven different countries.<ref>{{cite news |last=Grandin|first=Greg |date=January 15, 2017 |title= Why Did the US Drop 26,171 Bombs on the World Last Year?|url=|work=[[The Nation]] |location=|authorlink=Greg Grandin|access-date= January 11, 2018}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Agerholm|first=Harriet |date=January 19, 2017 |title=Map shows where President Barack Obama dropped his 20,000 bombs|url=|work=The Independent |location= |access-date=January 11, 2018}}</ref> Obama left about 8,400 US troops in [[Afghanistan]], 5,262 in Iraq, 503 in Syria, 133 in Pakistan, 106 in Somalia, 7 in Yemen, and 2 in Libya at the end of his presidency.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Parsons|first1=Christi|last2=Hennigan|first2=W. J.|title=President Obama, who hoped to sow peace, instead led the nation in war|url=|work=Los Angeles Times|date=January 13, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=DoD Personnel, Workforce Reports & Publications|}}</ref>

According to [[Pew Research Center]] and [[United States Bureau of Justice Statistics]], from December 31, 2009 to December 31, 2015, that inmates sentenced in US federal custody declined by 5% under Obama. This is the largest decline in sentenced inmates in US federal custody since Democratic President [[Jimmy Carter]]. By contrast, the federal prison population increased significantly under presidents [[Ronald Reagan]], [[George H. W. Bush]], [[Bill Clinton]], and [[George W. Bush]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Gramlich|first1=John|title=Federal prison population fell during Obama's term, reversing recent trend|url=|website=Pew Research Center|date=January 5, 2017}}</ref>

Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.<ref>{{Cite news|url=|title=Obama leaving office at 60% approval rating|agency=United Press International|access-date=February 26, 2017|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Obama approval hits 60% as end of term approaches|last=Director|first=Jennifer Agiesta, CNN|access-date=February 26, 2017|publisher=CNN}}</ref> A 2017 [[C-SPAN]] ''[[Historical rankings of presidents of the United States|Presidential Historians Survey]]'' ranked Obama as the 12th-best US president.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title= Total Scores/Overall Rankings|website=Presidential Historians Survey|year=2017|publisher=C-SPAN|accessdate=March 11, 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Von Drehle| first1=David|title=Barack Obama Ranked 12th Best U.S. President Ever in Major Survey of Historians|url=|work=[[Time (magazine)|Time]]| accessdate=February 18, 2017| date=February 17, 2017}}</ref>

Presidential library Edit

{{Main|Barack Obama Presidential Center}} The Barack Obama Presidential Center is Obama's planned [[presidential library]]. It will be hosted by the [[University of Chicago]] and located in [[Jackson Park (Chicago)|Jackson Park]] on the [[South Side, Chicago|South Side of Chicago]].<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Obama Foundation FAQs|publisher=Barack Obama Foundation}}</ref>

Bibliography Edit

* ''[[Dreams from My Father]]'', 1995 * ''[[The Audacity of Hope]]'', 2006 * ''[[Of Thee I Sing (book)|Of Thee I Sing]]'', 2010

Audiobooks Edit

* 2006: ''The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream'' (read by the author), [[Random House Audio]], {{ISBN|978-0739366417}}

See also Edit

{{Wikipedia books|Barack Obama}}

Politics Edit

* [[Social policy of Barack Obama]] * [[DREAM Act]] * [[Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986]] * [[List of international presidential trips made by Barack Obama]] * [[Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012]] * [[Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009]] * [[National Broadband Plan (United States)]] * [[Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy]] * [[SPEECH Act]] * [[Stay with It]] * [[White House Office of Energy and Climate Change Policy]]

Other Edit

* [[Speeches of Barack Obama]] * [[Roberts Court]]

Lists Edit

* [[Assassination threats against Barack Obama]] * [[List of people pardoned by Barack Obama]] * [[List of federal political scandals in the United States#2009–2017 Barack Obama Administration|Federal political scandals, 2009–17]] * [[List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2008]] * [[List of Barack Obama presidential campaign endorsements, 2012]] * [[List of African-American United States Senators]] * [[List of things named after Barack Obama]]

== Notes and references ==

Notes Edit

{{Reflist|30em|refs= <ref name="birth-certificate">{{cite web |date = April 27, 2011 |title = Certificate of Live Birth: Barack Hussein Obama II, August 4, 1961, 7:24&nbsp;pm, Honolulu |website = Department of Health, State of Hawaii |publisher = The White House |url = |accessdate = March 11, 2017 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 3, 2017 }}</ref> <ref name="Christian">* {{cite web|year=2009 |title=American President: Barack Obama |publisher=Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia |url= |accessdate=January 23, 2009 |quote=Religion: Christian |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 23, 2009 |deadurl=yes |df= }}

  • {{cite web|title=The Truth about Barack's Faith |publisher=Obama for America |url= |accessdate=July 1, 2012 |archivedate=January 5, 2011 |archiveurl= }}
  • {{cite news|author=Miller, Lisa |date=July 18, 2008 |title=Finding his faith |work=Newsweek |url= |accessdate=February 4, 2010 |quote=He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago. |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 6, 2010 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite news|author=Barakat, Matthew |agency=Associated Press |date=November 17, 2008 |title=Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized; D.C. churches have started extending invitations to Obama and his family |publisher=MSNBC |url= |accessdate=January 20, 2009 |quote=The United Church of Christ, the denomination from which Obama resigned when he left Wright's church, issued a written invitation to join a UCC denomination in Washington and resume his connections to the church. |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 24, 2009 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite web|date=January 20, 2009 |title=Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President |publisher=United Church of Christ |url= |accessdate=January 21, 2009 |quote=Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States. |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 25, 2009 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite news|author=Sullivan, Amy |date=June 29, 2009 |title=The Obama's find a church home&nbsp;– away from home |work=Time |url=,8599,1907610,00.html |accessdate=February 5, 2010 |quote=instead of joining a congregation in Washington, D.C., he will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David. }}
  • {{cite news|author=Kornblut, Anne E. |date=February 4, 2010 |title=Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say |newspaper=The Washington Post |page=A6 |url= |accessdate=February 5, 2010 |quote=Obama prays privately&nbsp;... And when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them, with the daughters attending a form of Sunday school there. }}</ref>

<ref name="Occidental">{{cite news|author=Gordon, Larry |date=January 29, 2007 |title=Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama |newspaper=Los Angeles Times |page=B1 |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=May 24, 2010 }}

  • {{cite news|author=Possley, Maurice |date=March 30, 2007 |title=Activism blossomed in college |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |page=20 |url=,0,1533921.story |accessdate=May 12, 2010 |archiveurl= |archivedate=October 9, 2010 |deadurl=no |df= }}
  • {{cite news|author=Kovaleski, Serge F. |date=February 9, 2008 |title=Old friends say drugs played bit part in Obama's young life |newspaper=The New York Times |page=A1 |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|author=Rohter, Larry |date=April 10, 2008 |title=Obama says real-life experience trumps rivals' foreign policy credits |newspaper=The New York Times |page=A18 |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|author= Goldman, Adam |author2=Robert Tanner |agency=Associated Press |date=May 15, 2008 |title=Old friends recall Obama's years in LA, NYC |work=USA Today |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|author=Helman, Scott |date=August 25, 2008 |title=Small college awakened future senator to service (subscription archive) |newspaper=Boston Globe |page=1A |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|author=Jackson, Brooks |date=June 5, 2009 |title=More 'birther' nonsense: Obama's 1981 Pakistan trip | |url= |accessdate=May 12, 2010 }}
  • {{cite book |author = Remnick, David |year = 2010 |title = The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama |place = New York |publisher = Alfred A. Knopf |pages = 98–112 |isbn = 978-1400043606 |title-link = The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 92–112. * Mendell (2007), pp. 55–62.</ref> <ref name="Juris Doctor">{{cite web |url= |title=Obama joins list of seven presidents with Harvard degrees |date=November 6, 2008 | |publisher= |access-date=October 23, 2017}} {{cite news |author = Adams, Richard |date = May 9, 2007 |title = Barack Obama |newspaper = The Guardian |place = London |url = |accessdate = October 26, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = October 13, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref> <ref name="Fellow">{{cite magazine |author = Merriner, James L. |date = June 2008 |title = The friends of O |magazine = Chicago |volume = 57 |issue = 6 |pages = 74–79, 97–99 |issn = 0362-4595 |url = |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Zengerle, Jason |date = July 30, 2008 |title = Con law; What the University of Chicago right thinks of Obama |work = The New Republic |volume = 239 |issue = 1 |pages = 7–8 |url = |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Kantor, Jodi |date = July 30, 2008 |title = Teaching law, testing ideas, Obama stood slightly apart |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Gray, Steven |date = September 10, 2008 |title = Taking professor Obama's class |work = Time |url =,8599,1835238-2,00.html |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Starr, Alexandra |date = September 21, 2008 |title = Case study |magazine = The New York Times Magazine |page = 76 |url = |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Hundley, Tom |date = March 22, 2009 |title = Ivory tower of power |magazine = Chicago Tribune Magazine |page = 6 |url = |accessdate = January 30, 2010 }}</ref>

<ref name="Forty">{{cite book |editor = White, Jesse |year = 2000 |title = Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed |page = 83 |place = Springfield, IL |publisher = Illinois Secretary of State |url = |archivedate = April 16, 2004 |archiveurl = |oclc = 43923973 |accessdate = June 6, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Jarrett, Vernon |date = August 11, 1992 |title = 'Project Vote' brings power to the people |work = Chicago Sun-Times |page = 23 |format = paid archive |url =,E&p_text_date-0=8/11/1992%20to%208/11/1992)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Vernon%20Jarrett)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = June 6, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Reynolds, Gretchen |date = January 1993 |title = Vote of confidence |work = Chicago Magazine |volume = 42 |issue = 1 |pages = 53–54 |issn = 0362-4595 |url = |accessdate = June 6, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 14, 2008 |deadurl = no }}
  • {{cite news |author = Anderson, Veronica |date = October 3, 1993 |title = 40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote |newspaper = Crain's Chicago Business |volume = 16 |issue = 39 |page = 43 |issn = 0149-6956 }}</ref>

<ref name="DavisMiner">{{cite news|author=Robinson, Mike |agency=Associated Press |date=February 20, 2007 |title=Obama got start in civil rights practice |newspaper=Boston Globe |url= |accessdate=June 15, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news|author=Pallasch, Abdon M. |date=December 17, 2007 |title=As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking |newspaper=Chicago Sun-Times |page=4 |url=,E&p_text_date-0=December_17,_2007_to_12/17/2007)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Pallasch)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate=June 15, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}
  • {{cite news|author=Morain, Dan |date=April 6, 2008 |title=Obama's law days effective but brief |newspaper=Los Angeles Times |page=A14 |url= |accessdate=February 14, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news|date=June 27, 1993 |title=Document |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |page=9 (Business) |url= |accessdate=June 15, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 4, 2013 |deadurl=yes |df= }}{{subscription required}}
  • {{cite news|date=July 5, 1993 |title=Business appointments |newspaper=Chicago-Sun-Times |page=40 |url=,E&p_text_date-0=7/5/1993%20to%207/5/1993)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Business%20appointments)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate=June 15, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}
  • {{cite news|author=Ripley, Amanda |date=November 3, 2004 |title=Obama's ascent |work=Time |url=,9171,750742,00.html |accessdate=February 13, 2010 }}
  • {{cite web|year=2008 |title=About us |url= |publisher=Miner, Barnhill & Galland&nbsp;– Chicago, Illinois |accessdate=June 15, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=July 20, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}
  • {{cite news|author=Reardon, Patrick T. |date=June 25, 2008 |title=Obama's Chicago |newspaper=Chicago Tribune |page=1 (Tempo) |url=,0,506256.htmlstory |accessdate=February 13, 2010 }}

* Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439. * Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.</ref> <ref name="Democratic primary">{{cite web|url= |title=Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results&nbsp;– Illinois |publisher=[[Federal Election Commission]] |accessdate=April 24, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=March 28, 2008 |deadurl=no }}

  • {{cite news|url= |title=Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid |author=Gonyea, Dan |date=September 19, 2007 |publisher=NPR |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 18, 2011 }}
  • {{cite news|first=Janny |last=Scott |title=A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama |date=September 9, 2007 |url= |work=The New York Times |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=March 21, 2008 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite news|first=Edward |last=McClelland |title=How Obama Learned to Be a Natural |date=February 12, 2007 |url= |work=Salon |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=March 8, 2008 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite news|first=Richard |last=Wolffe |author2=Daren Briscoe |title=Across the Divide |date=July 16, 2007 |work=Newsweek |url= |accessdate=April 20, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 18, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}
  • {{cite news|first=Scott |last=Helman |title=Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb |date=October 12, 2007 |url= |work=Boston Globe |accessdate=April 20, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news|url= |title=Obama learned from failed Congress run |work=USA Today |author=Wills, Christopher |date=October 24, 2007 |accessdate=November 15, 2010 }}</ref>

<ref name="Rose Garden">{{cite web |author = Office of the Press Secretary |date = October 2, 2002 |title = President, House leadership agree on Iraq resolution |publisher = The White House |url = |accessdate = February 18, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Tackett, Michael |date = October 3, 2002 |title = Bush, House OK Iraq deal; Congress marches with Bush |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 1 |url = |accessdate = February 3, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}</ref>

<ref name="Federal Plaza"> {{cite news |author = Glauber, Bill |date = October 3, 2003 |title = War protesters gentler, but passion still burns |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 1 |url = |accessdate = February 3, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}

  • {{cite news |author = Strausberg, Chinta |date = October 3, 2002 |title = War with Iraq undermines U.N |newspaper = Chicago Defender |page = 1 |url = |quote = Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday. |accessdate = October 28, 2008 |archive-url = |archive-date = October 14, 2009 |dead-url = yes |df = mdy-all }}
  • {{cite web |author = Katz, Marilyn |date = October 2, 2007 |title = Five years since our first action |publisher = Chicagoans Against War & Injustice |url = |accessdate = February 18, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 21, 2011 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Greg Bryant |author2 = Jane B. Vaughn |date = October 3, 2002 |title = 300 attend rally against Iraq war |newspaper = Daily Herald |page = 8 |url =,E&p_text_date-0=10/3/2002%20to%2010/3/2002)Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = October 28, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}

* Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177. </ref> <ref name="spoke out">{{cite web |author = Obama, Barack |date = October 2, 2002 |title = Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama against going to war with Iraq |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = January 30, 2008 |publisher = Barack Obama |accessdate = February 3, 2008 }}

  • {{cite news |author = McCormick, John |date = October 3, 2007 |title = Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 7 |url = |quote = The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion. |accessdate = October 28, 2008 }}{{Subscription required}}
  • {{cite news |author = Pallasch, Abdon M. |date = October 3, 2007 |title = Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq |newspaper = Chicago Sun-Times |page = 26 |url =Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = October 28, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}</ref>

<ref name="stop the war">{{cite news |author = Ritter, Jim |date = March 17, 2003 |newspaper = Chicago Sun-Times |page = 3 |title = Anti-war rally here draws thousands |url =Êl_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:DÊl_useweights=no |accessdate = February 3, 2008 }} {{subscription required}}

  • {{cite press release |author = Office of the Press Secretary |date = March 16, 2003 |title = President Bush: Monday 'moment of truth' for world on Iraq |publisher = The White House |url = |accessdate = February 18, 2008 }}</ref>

<ref name="future">{{cite news |author = Mendell, David |date = March 17, 2004 |title = Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 1 |url = |accessdate = March 1, 2009 }}

  • {{cite news |author = Davey, Monica |date = March 18, 2004 |title = As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A20 |url = |accessdate = March 1, 2009 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Howlett, Debbie |date = March 19, 2004 |title = Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate |newspaper = USA Today |page = A04 |url = |accessdate = March 1, 2009 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Scheiber, Noam |date = May 31, 2004 |title = Race against history. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign |work = The New Republic |volume = 230 |issue = 20 |pages = 21–22, 24–26 (cover story) |url = |accessdate = March 24, 2009 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Finnegan, William |date = May 31, 2004 |title = The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go? |work = The New Yorker |volume = 20 |issue = 14 |pages = 32–38 |url = |accessdate = March 24, 2009 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Dionne Jr., E.J. |date = June 25, 2004 |title = In Illinois, a star prepares |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A29 |url = |accessdate = March 24, 2009 }}
  • {{cite news |author = Scott, Janny |date = May 18, 2008 |title = The story of Obama, written by Obama |newspaper = The New York Times |page = A1 |url = |accessdate = January 9, 2010 }}

* Mendell (2007), pp. 235–259.</ref> <ref name="status">{{cite news |date=August 2, 2004 |title=Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights |work=Newsweek |pages=48–51 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 18, 2008 |deadurl=no }}

  • {{cite news |author=Samuel, Terence |date=August 2, 2004 |title=A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats |work=U.S. News & World Report |page=25 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 6, 2008 |deadurl=yes}}
  • {{cite news |author=Lizza, Ryan |date=September 2004 |title=Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry? |work=The Atlantic Monthly |pages=30, 33 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author=Davey, Monica |date=July 26, 2004 |title=A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet |newspaper=The New York Times |page=A1 |url= |accessdate=November 25, 2010 }}
  • {{cite news |author=Leibovich, Mark |date=July 27, 2004 |title=The other man of the hour |work=The Washington Post |page=C1 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author=Milligan, Susan |date=July 27, 2004 |title=In Obama, Democrats see their future |work=Boston Globe |page=B8 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 18, 2008 |deadurl=no }}
  • {{cite news |author=Seelye, Katharine Q. |date=July 28, 2004 |title=Illinois Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity |newspaper=The New York Times |page=A1 |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 24, 2006}}
  • {{cite news |author=Broder, David S. |date=July 28, 2004 |title=Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes |work=The Washington Post |page=A1 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008}}
  • {{cite news |author=Jonathan Bing |author2=Pamela McClintock |date=July 29, 2004 |title=Auds resist charms of Dem stars |work=Variety |page=1 |url= |accessdate=November 15, 2008}}

* Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.</ref> <ref name="margin"> {{cite news |year = 2005 |title = America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois |publisher = CNN |url = |accessdate = April 13, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = April 16, 2008 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |author = Slevin, Peter |date = November 13, 2007 |title = For Obama, a handsome payoff in political gambles |newspaper = The Washington Post |page = A3 |url = |accessdate = April 13, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |author = John Chase |author2 = David Mendell |date = November 3, 2004 |title = Obama scores a record landslide |newspaper = Chicago Tribune |page = 1 |url = |accessdate = April 3, 2009 |deadurl = yes |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 13, 2011 |df = mdy-all }}
  • {{cite news |author = Fornek, Scott |date = November 3, 2004 |title = Obama takes Senate seat in a landslide |newspaper = Chicago Sun-Times |page = 6 |url = |accessdate = April 3, 2009 |archive-url = |archive-date = May 10, 2013 |dead-url = yes |df = mdy-all }}


  • {{cite news |first = Tom |last = Curry |title = What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal |date = February 21, 2008 |url = |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = June 25, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = May 13, 2008 |deadurl = no }}
  • {{cite news|url= |title=Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007 |work=National Journal |date=January 31, 2008 |accessdate=June 25, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 27, 2008 |deadurl=yes }}

<ref name="transition period">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois |accessdate = March 10, 2009 |date = November 16, 2008 |agency = Reuters |author = Mason, Jeff }}</ref>

  • {{cite news |url=,8599,1859020,00.html |title=Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday |accessdate=November 22, 2008 |date=November 13, 2008 |work=Time |author=Sidoti, Liz |archiveurl= |archivedate=November 22, 2008 |deadurl=yes}}

<ref name="nuclear terrorism">{{cite press release |title = Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved |date = December 20, 2007 |url = |publisher = Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 }}</ref> <ref name="Kenyan"> {{cite news |first=Christina |last=Larson |title=Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP |date=September 2006 |url= |work=Washington Monthly |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 30, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}

  • {{cite news |first=Chuck |last=Goudie |title=Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor |date=January 12, 2006 |url= |publisher=WLS-TV |location=Chicago |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |archive-url= |archive-date=November 3, 2014 |dead-url=yes }}
  • {{cite news |title=Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud |date=August 28, 2006 |url=,,2-11-1447_1989646,00.html |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 5, 2008 |publisher=News24 |location=Cape Town |accessdate=April 27, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}
  • {{cite news |first=Chris |last=Wamalwa |title=Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark |date=September 2, 2006 |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=October 10, 2007 |work=The Standard (Nairobi) |accessdate=April 27, 2008 }}
  • {{cite news |first=Vincent |last=Moracha |author2=Mangoa Mosota |title=Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims |date=September 4, 2006 |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=October 7, 2007 |work=The Standard |location=Nairobi }}

</ref> <ref name="allocation">{{cite news|url=,8599,1738331,00.html |title=The Five Mistakes Clinton Made |author=Tumulty, Karen |author-link=Karen Tumulty |work=Time |date=May 8, 2008 |accessdate=November 11, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 11, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}

  • {{cite news|url= |title=The Long Road to a Clinton Exit |author=Peter Baker |author2=Jim Rutenberg |work=The New York Times |date=June 8, 2008 |accessdate=November 29, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 9, 2008 |deadurl=no }}</ref>

<ref name="delegates">{{cite news |author = Baldwin, Tom |title = Hillary Clinton: 'Barack is my candidate' |url = |work = The Times |location = London |date = August 27, 2008 |accessdate = August 27, 2008 }}{{subscription required}}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = Obama Wins Nomination as Biden and Bill Clinton Rally the Party |work = The New York Times |author = Nagourney, Adam |date = August 27, 2008 |accessdate = August 27, 2008 }}</ref>

<ref name="acceptance">{{cite news |title = Obama accepts Democrat nomination |url = |work = BBC News |date = August 29, 2008 |accessdate = August 29, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = August 28, 2008 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = Soaring speech from Obama, plus some specifics |work = The Christian Science Monitor |author = Marks, Alexandra |date = August 29, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 14, 2010 }}</ref>

<ref name="small donations">{{cite news|first=Jim |last=Malone |title=Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination |date=July 2, 2007 |url= |archiveurl= |archivedate=September 14, 2007 |publisher=Voice of America }}

  • {{cite news|first=Jeanne |last=Cummings |title=Small Donors Rewrite Fundraising Handbook |date=September 26, 2007 |url= |work=Politico |accessdate=January 14, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 1, 2008 |deadurl=yes |df= }}
  • {{cite news|first=Emily |last=Cadei |title=Obama Outshines Other Candidates in January Fundraising |date=February 21, 2008 |url= |publisher=CQ Politics |archiveurl= |archivedate=June 13, 2008 }}</ref>

<ref name="presidential debates">{{cite press release |url = |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 6, 2008 |title = Commission on Presidential Debates Announces Sites, Dates, Formats and Candidate Selection Criteria for 2008 General Election |publisher = [[Commission on Presidential Debates]] |date = November 19, 2007 }}

  • {{cite news |accessdate = July 6, 2008 |url = |title = Gun Ruling Reverberates |work = [[Hartford Courant]] |date = June 27, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 5, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

<ref name="electoral votes">{{cite news |publisher = MSNBC |accessdate = February 20, 2009 |date = November 4, 2008 |url = |title = Barack Obama elected 44th president |author = Johnson, Alex |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 20, 2009 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = CNN Electoral Map Calculator&nbsp;– Election Center 2008 |publisher = CNN |year = 2008 |accessdate = December 14, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 12, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

<ref name="direct assistance">{{cite news |url = |title = Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, Stimulus Watch |accessdate = April 9, 2011 }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = Obama's remarks on signing the stimulus plan |accessdate = February 17, 2009 |publisher = CNN |date = February 17, 2009 |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 20, 2009 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

<ref name="markets opened">{{cite news |title = U.S. Expands Plan to Buy Banks' Troubled Assets |date = March 23, 2009 |work = The New York Times |url = |first1 = Edmund L. |last1 = Andrews |first2 = Eric |last2 = Dash |accessdate = April 12, 2010 }}

  • {{cite news |title = Wall Street soars 7% on bank plan debut |date = March 23, 2009 |agency = Reuters |url = }}</ref>

<ref name="preceding administration">{{cite news|title=Biden vows break with Bush era foreign policy |url= |accessdate=January 31, 2013 |first1=Ross |last1=Colvin |first2=Noah |last2=Barkin | |location=Toronto |date=February 7, 2009 |archiveurl= |archivedate=November 6, 2012 |deadurl=yes |df= }}

  • {{cite news|first=Kim |last=Ghattas |title=Clinton's gaffes and gains on tour |url= |accessdate=June 15, 2009 |work=BBC News |date=March 8, 2009 }}</ref>

<ref name="middleeast">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama in Egypt reaches out to Muslim world |date = June 4, 2009 |publisher = CNN |accessdate = January 30, 2011 }}</ref>

  • {{cite news |first = Jeff |last = Zeleny |first2 = Alan |last2 = Cowell |url = |title = Addressing Muslims, Obama Pushes Mideast Peace |work = The New York Times |date = June 4, 2009 |archiveurl =|archivedate=March 31, 2011 }}
  • {{cite web |url = |title = The President in the Middle East |date = June 3, 2009 |first = Jesse |last = Lee |publisher = The White House |accessdate = June 4, 2009 |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 2, 2009 |deadurl = no }}

<ref name="counterinsurgency tactics"> {{cite news |url = |title = Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Is Fired |date = May 12, 2009 |work = The Washington Post }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = New U.S. Commander Brings Counterinsurgency Experience to Afghanistan |date = May 13, 2009 |publisher = Fox News Channel |access-date = May 30, 2012 |archive-url = |archive-date = February 16, 2012 |dead-url = yes |df = mdy-all }}

</ref> <ref name="exceptional orator">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama: Oratory and originality |last = Holmes |first = Stephanie |date = November 30, 2008 |accessdate = December 11, 2008 |work = The Age |location = Melbourne |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 18, 2008 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = How to Inspire People Like Obama Does |last = Gallo |first = Carmine |date = March 3, 2008 |accessdate = February 21, 2009 |work = Bloomberg BusinessWeek |archiveurl = |archivedate = February 26, 2009 |deadurl = no }}
  • {{cite news |url = |title = New emotion dubbed 'elevation' |date = December 11, 2008 |work = Toronto Star |accessdate = December 11, 2008 |first = Diana |last = Zlomislic |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 12, 2008 |deadurl = no }}
  • {{cite news |title = Obama Is America's Third Greatest Presidential Orator in Modern Era |url = |date = January 25, 2011 |first = Richard |last = Greene |work = [[HuffPost]] |accessdate = July 2, 2011 }}</ref>

<ref name="in Jakarta">{{cite web |title = Obama's Indonesian Redux |url = |author = Zimmer, Benjamin |year = 2009 |accessdate = March 12, 2009 |publisher = Language Log |archiveurl = |archivedate = March 3, 2009 |deadurl = no }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = Obama: Saya Kangen Nasi Goreng, Bakso, dan Rambutan |work = [[Kompas]] |date = November 26, 2008 |archiveurl = |archivedate = December 3, 2008 |language = id }}</ref>

<ref name="corruption charges">{{cite news |url = |title = Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser |work = The Washington Post |date = December 17, 2006 |accessdate = June 10, 2008 |last = Slevin |first = Peter }}

  • {{cite news |url = |title = Rezko found guilty in corruption case |accessdate = June 24, 2008 |date = June 4, 2008 |agency = Associated Press |publisher = MSNBC |last = Robinson |first = Mike |archiveurl = |archivedate = June 7, 2008 |deadurl = no }}</ref>

<ref name="social change">Obama (2006), pp. 202–208. Portions excerpted in: {{cite news|first=Barack |last=Obama |title=My Spiritual Journey |date=October 16, 2006 |url=,9171,1546579,00.html |work=Time |accessdate=April 28, 2008 |archiveurl= |archivedate=April 30, 2008 |deadurl=no |df= }}

  • {{cite web|url= |title='Call to Renewal' Keynote Address |accessdate=June 16, 2008 |last=Obama |first=Barack |date=June 28, 2006 |publisher=Barack Obama: U.S. Senator for Illinois |archiveurl= |archivedate=January 4, 2009 }}</ref>

<ref name="Trinity">{{cite news |last1 = Garrett |first1 = Major |last2 = Obama |first2 = Barack |date = March 14, 2008 |title = Obama talks to Major Garrett on 'Hannity & Colmes' |publisher = RealClearPolitics |url = |accessdate = November 10, 2012 |quote = Major Garrett, Fox News correspondent: So the first question, how long have you been a member in good standing of that church? Sen. Barack Obama (D-IL), presidential candidate: You know, I've been a member since 1991 or '92. And&nbsp;– but I have known Trinity even before then when I was a community organizer on the South Side, helping steel workers find jobs&nbsp;... Garrett: As a member in good standing, were you a regular attendee of Sunday services? Obama: You know, I won't say that I was a perfect attendee. I was regular in spurts, because there was times when, for example, our child had just been born, our first child. And so we didn't go as regularly then. }}

  • {{cite news |agency = Associated Press |date = April 29, 2008 |title = Obama strongly denounces former pastor |publisher = MSNBC |url = |accessdate = November 10, 2012 |quote = I have been a member of Trinity United Church of Christ since 1992, and have known Reverend Wright for 20 years," Obama said. "The person I saw yesterday was not the person that I met 20 years ago. }}
  • {{cite news |last = Miller |first = Lisa |date = July 11, 2008 |title = Finding his faith |work = Newsweek |url = |accessdate = November 10, 2012 |quote = He is now a Christian, having been baptized in the early 1990s at Trinity United Church of Christ in Chicago. |archiveurl = |archivedate = July 20, 2013 |deadurl = yes }}
  • {{cite book |last = Remnick |first = David |year = 2010 |title = The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama |location = New York |publisher = Alfred A. Knopf |page = <span class="plainlinks">[ 177]</span> |isbn = 978-1400043606 |quote = In late October 1987, his third year as an organizer, Obama went with Kellman to a conference on the black church and social justice at the Harvard Divinity School. |title-link = The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama }}

* Maraniss (2012), <span class="plainlinks">[ p. 557]</span>: It would take time for Obama to join and become fully engaged in Wright's church, a place where he would be baptized and married; that would not happen until later, during his second time around in Chicago, but the process started then, in October 1987 ... Jerry Kellman: "He wasn't a member of the church during those first three years, but he was drawn to Jeremiah."

  • {{Cite book |first=Baker |last=Peter |authorlink=Peter Baker (author) |year=2017 |title=Obama: The Call of History |location=New York |publisher=The New York Times/Callaway |isbn=978-0935112900 |oclc=1002264033}}</ref>


References Edit


  • {{cite book |last = Jacobs |first = Sally H. |year = 2011 |title = The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father |location = New York |publisher = [[PublicAffairs]] |isbn = 978-1586487935 |ref = harv |title-link = The Other Barack: The Bold and Reckless Life of President Obama's Father }}
  • {{cite book |author = [[David Maraniss|Maraniss, David]] |year = 2012 |title = Barack Obama: The Story |location = New York |publisher = [[Simon & Schuster]] |isbn = 978-1439160404 |ref = harv |title-link = Barack Obama: The Story }}
  • {{cite book |author = [[David Mendell|Mendell, David]] |year = 2007 |title = Obama: From Promise to Power |location = New York |publisher = Amistad/[[HarperCollins]] |isbn = 978-0-06-085820-9 |ref = harv |title-link = Obama: From Promise to Power }}
  • {{cite book |last = Obama |first = Barack |origyear = 1st pub. 1995 |year = 2004 |title = Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance |location = New York |publisher = [[Three Rivers Press]] |isbn = 978-1400082773 |ref = harv |title-link = Dreams from My Father }}
  • {{cite book |last = Obama |first = Barack |year = 2006 |title = The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream |location = New York |publisher = [[Crown Publishing Group]] |isbn = 978-0307237699 |ref = harv |title-link = The Audacity of Hope }}
  • {{cite book |last = Scott |first = Janny |year = 2011 |title = A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother |location = New York |publisher = [[Riverhead Books]] |isbn = 978-1594487972 |title-link = A Singular Woman: The Untold Story of Barack Obama's Mother }}


Further reading Edit


  • {{cite magazine|last=Graff |first=Garrett M. |date=November 1, 2006 |title=The Legend of Barack Obama |url= |magazine=Washingtonian |access-date=January 14, 2008 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=February 14, 2008 }}
  • {{cite book |last = Koltun |first = Dave |editor-last1 = Ahuja |editor-first1 = Sunil |editor-last2 = Dewhirst |editor-first2 = Robert |year = 2005 |title = The Road to Congress 2004 |chapter = The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star" |location = Hauppauge, New York |publisher = Nova Science Publishers |isbn = 978-1-59454-360-9 |ref = harv }}
  • {{cite magazine |last = Lizza |first = Ryan |date = September 2007 |title = Above the Fray |url = |magazine = GQ |access-date = October 27, 2010 }}
  • {{cite magazine |author = [[Larissa MacFarquhar]] |date = May 7, 2007 |title = The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From? |url = |magazine = The New Yorker |access-date = January 14, 2008 }}
  • {{cite book |last = McClelland |first = Edward |year = 2010 |title = Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President |location = New York |publisher = Bloomsbury Press |isbn = 978-1608190607 }}
  • {{cite news |last = Zutter |first = Hank De |date = December 8, 1995 |title = What Makes Obama Run? |url = |newspaper = Chicago Reader |access-date = April 25, 2015 }}


External links Edit

{{Library resources box|by=yes|onlinebooks=yes|viaf=52010985}}

Official Edit

  • {{Official website|}} of The Office of Barack and Michelle Obama
  • {{Official website|}} of The Obama Foundation
  • {{Official website|}} of the Barack Obama Presidential Library
  • {{Official website|}} of [[Organizing for Action]]

* [ White House biography]

Other Edit

* [ Column archive] at ''[[HuffPost|The Huffington Post]]''

  • {{Britannica|973560}}

* Obama B. [[United States Health Care Reform: Progress to Date and Next Steps]]. ''[[JAMA (journal)|JAMA]]''. Published online July 11, 2016. {{DOI|10.1001/jama.2016.9797}}. * Teague Beckwith, Ryan (March 23, 2017). "[ Read Barack Obama's Statement on the Anniversary of Obamacare]". ''Time'' magazine. Archived from [ the original] on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. See also: Taylor, Jessica (March 23, 2017). "[ Obama: 'America Is Stronger Because Of The Affordable Care Act']". National Public Radio. Archived from [ the original] on March 31, 2017. Retrieved March 31, 2017. * Obama B. [ "The President's Role in Advancing Criminal Justice Reform"]. ''[[Harvard Law Review]]''. Published January 5, 2017.

  • {{Dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Government/Executive_Branch/President/POTUS_Barack_Obama}}
  • {{CongBio|O000167}}
  • {{C-SPAN|Barack Obama}}
  • {{ChicagoTribuneKeyword}}

* [ Collected news and commentary] at the ''Tampa Bay Times''{{'}}s [[]] * [ Collected news and commentary] at ''The Washington Post''{{'}}s Fact Checker blog * "[ Barack Obama is officially one of the most consequential presidents in American history]" by [[Vox (website)|Vox]] author Dylan Matthews on March 24, 2017. [ Archived from the original] on March 24, 2017. Retrieved April 2, 2017. The article describes the successes and failures of Barack Obama's domestic and foreign policy as well as provides articles for further reading in this context.

  • {{Cite serial |title=Making Obama |url= |date=2018 |series=Making |season=2 |station=[[WBEZ]]}} "Former President Barack Obama—along with key advisers, mentors, and rivals—tells the story of his climb from Chicago to the national stage."
  • {{Gutenberg author | id=Obama,+Barack | name=Barack Obama}}
  • {{Internet Archive author | name=Barack Obama}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=11252}}
  • {{IMDb name}}

{{Barack Obama|state=expanded}} {{Navboxes |title = Offices and distinctions |list1 = {{s-start}} {{s-par|us-il-sen}} {{s-bef|before=[[Alice Palmer (politician)|Alice Palmer]]}} {{s-ttl|title=Member of the [[Illinois Senate]]<br />from the 13th district|years=1997–2004}} {{s-aft|after=[[Kwame Raoul]]}}

{{s-ppo}} {{s-bef|before=[[Carol Moseley Braun]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] nominee for [[List of United States Senators from Illinois|U.S. Senator]] from [[Illinois]]<br />([[Classes of United States Senators|Class 3]])|years=[[United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004|2004]]}} {{s-aft|after=[[Alexi Giannoulias]]}}

{{s-bef|before=[[Harold Ford Jr.]]}} {{s-ttl|title=Keynote Speaker of the [[Democratic National Convention]]|years=[[2004 Democratic National Convention|2004]]}} {{s-aft|after=[[Mark Warner]]}}

{{s-bef|before=[[John Kerry]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic]] [[List of United States Democratic Party presidential tickets|nominee]] for President of the United States|years=[[2008 United States presidential election|2008]], [[2012 United States presidential election|2012]]}} {{s-aft|after=[[Hillary Clinton]]}}

{{s-par|us-sen}} {{s-bef|before=[[Peter Fitzgerald (politician)|Peter Fitzgerald]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[List of United States Senators from Illinois|United States Senator (Class 3) from Illinois]]|years=2005–2008|alongside=[[Dick Durbin]]}} {{s-aft|after=[[Roland Burris]]}}

{{s-off|usa}} {{s-bef|before=[[George W. Bush]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[President of the United States]]|years=2009–2017}} {{s-aft|after=[[Donald Trump]]}}

{{s-ach}} {{s-bef|before=[[Martti Ahtisaari]]}} {{s-ttl|title=[[Nobel Peace Prize]] Laureate|years=2009}} {{s-aft|after=[[Liu Xiaobo]]}}

{{s-prec|usa}} {{s-bef|before=[[George W. Bush]]|as=Former President}} {{s-ttl|title=[[United States order of precedence|Order of Precedence of the United States]]<br />''Former President''|years=}} {{s-aft|after=[[Walter Mondale]]|as=Former Vice President}}

{{s-dip}} {{s-bef|before=[[Gordon Brown]]}} {{s-ttl|title=Chairperson of the [[G20|Group of 20]]|years=2009}} {{s-aft|after=[[Stephen Harper]]}} {{s-end}} }}

{{Navboxes |list1 = {{US Presidents}} {{United States presidential election, 2008}} {{United States presidential election, 2012}} {{Democratic Party (United States)}} {{Nobel Peace Prize laureates}} {{Time Persons of the Year}} {{United States Senators from Illinois}} {{Patriot Act}} {{Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album 2000s}} }} {{Subject bar | commons = y | n = y | n-search = Category:Barack Obama | d = y | d-search = Q76 | q = y | s = y | s-search = Author:Barack Obama }} {{Portal bar|Biography|2010s|African American|Chicago|Illinois|Hawaii|Liberalism|Government of the United States|Law|Politics|United States}} {{Authority control}} {{Featured article}}

{{DEFAULTSORT:Obama, Barack Hussein II}} [[Category:Barack Obama| ]] [[Category:1961 births]] [[Category:Living people]] [[Category:20th-century American male writers]] [[Category:20th-century American non-fiction writers]] [[Category:20th-century Protestants]] [[Category:20th-century scholars]] [[Category:21st-century American male writers]] [[Category:21st-century American non-fiction writers]] [[Category:21st-century American politicians]] [[Category:21st-century Protestants]] [[Category:21st-century scholars]] [[Category:21st-century Presidents of the United States]] [[Category:Activists from Illinois]] [[Category:African-American Christians]] [[Category:African-American feminists]] [[Category:African-American non-fiction writers]] [[Category:African-American state legislators in Illinois]] [[Category:African-American United States presidential candidates]] [[Category:African-American United States Senators]] [[Category:American civil rights lawyers]] [[Category:American community activists]] [[Category:American feminist writers]] [[Category:American legal scholars]] [[Category:American male non-fiction writers]] [[Category:American memoirists]] [[Category:American Nobel laureates]] [[Category:American people of English descent]] [[Category:American people of French descent]] [[Category:American people of German descent]] [[Category:American people of Irish descent]] [[Category:American people of Kenyan descent]] [[Category:American people of Luo descent]] [[Category:American people of Scottish descent]] [[Category:American people of Swiss descent]] [[Category:American people of Welsh descent]] [[Category:American political writers]] [[Category:American politicians of Luo descent]] [[Category:American Protestants]] [[Category:Articles containing video clips]] [[Category:Proponents of Christian feminism]] [[Category:Columbia University alumni]] [[Category:Democratic Party Presidents of the United States]] [[Category:Democratic Party (United States) presidential nominees]] [[Category:Democratic Party United States Senators]] [[Category:Grammy Award winners]] [[Category:Harvard Law School alumni]] [[Category:HuffPost writers and columnists]] [[Category:Illinois Democrats]] [[Category:Illinois lawyers]] [[Category:Illinois state senators]] [[Category:Male feminists]] [[Category:Members of the American Philosophical Society]] [[Category:Nobel Peace Prize laureates]] [[Category:Obama family|Barack]] [[Category:Occidental College alumni]] [[Category:Politicians from Chicago]] [[Category:Politicians from Honolulu]] [[Category:Presidents of the United States]] [[Category:Punahou School alumni]] [[Category:2008 United States presidential candidates]] [[Category:2012 United States presidential candidates]] [[Category:United States Senators from Illinois]] [[Category:University of Chicago Law School faculty]] [[Category:Writers from Chicago]] [[Category:African-American academics]] [[Category:African-American educators]] [[Category:Failed assassination attempt survivors]]

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.